Accepted Manuscripts

Technical Brief  
Nikhil Bajaj, Jeffrey F. Rhoads and George Chiu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036873
Micro- and millimeter-scale resonant mass sensors have received widespread research attention due to their robust and highly-sensitive performance in a wide range of detection applications. A key performance metric associated with such systems is the sensitivity of the resonant frequency of a given device to changes in mass, which needs to be calibrated for different sensor designs. This calibration is complicated by the fact that the position of any added mass on a sensor can have an effect on the measured sensitivity, and thus a spatial sensitivity mapping is needed. To date, most approaches for experimental sensitivity characterization are based upon the controlled addition of small masses. These approaches include the direct attachment of microbeads via atomic force microscopy or the selective microelectrodeposition of material, both of which are time consuming and require specialized equipment. This work proposes a method of experimental spatial sensitivity measurement that uses an inkjet system and standard sensor readout methodology to map the spatially-dependent sensitivity of a resonant mass sensor -- a significantly easier experimental approach. The methodology is described and demonstrated on a quartz resonator and used to inform practical sensor development. In the specific case of a Kyocera CX3225 thickness-shear mode resonator, the location of the region of maximum mass sensitivity is experimentally identified.
TOPICS: Resonance, Sensors, Atomic force microscopy, Shear (Mechanics), Calibration, Quartz
Venkatesh Chinde, Krishna Chaitanya, Atul Kelkar, Ramakrishna Pasumarthy, Soumik Sarkar and Navdeep Singh
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036885
Regulating indoor air environment is one of the core functions of building energy management system. Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning (HVAC) control systems play an important role in adjusting the room temperature to provide occupants a desired level of comfort. Occupant comfort has a direct effect on the energy consumption and providing an optimal balance between comfort and energy consumption is a challenging problem. This paper presents a framework for control of building HVAC systems using a methodology based on power shaping paradigm that exploits the passivity property of a system. The system dynamics are expressed in the Brayton-Moser (BM) form which exhibits a gradient structure with the mixed-potential function, which has the units of power. The power shaping technique is used to synthesize the controller by assigning a desired power function to the closed loop dynamics so as to make the equilibrium point asymptotically stable. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on HVAC subsystems: RC network building zone model and a heat exchanger system.
TOPICS: HVAC equipment, Energy consumption, Heating, Building management systems, Equilibrium (Physics), Heat exchangers, Dynamics (Mechanics), Temperature, Air conditioning, Control systems, Control equipment, System dynamics
Ming Yue, Xiaoqiang Hou and Wenbin Hou
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036884
Tractor-trailer vehicles will suffer from nonholonomic constraint, uncertain disturbance and various physical limits, when they perform path tracking maneuver autonomously. This paper presents a composite path tracking control strategy to tackle the various problems arising from not only vehicle kinematic but also dynamic levels via two powerful control techniques. The proposed composite control structure consists of a model predictive control (MPC) based posture controller and a direct adaptive fuzzy based dynamic controller, respectively. The former posture controller can make the underactuated trailer midpoint follow an arbitrary reference trajectory given by the earth-fixed frame, as well as satisfying various physical limits. Meanwhile, the latter dynamic controller enables the vehicle velocities to track the desired velocities produced by the former one, and the global asymptotical convergence of dynamic controller is strictly guaranteed in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem. The simulation results illustrate that the presented control strategy can achieve a coordinated control effect for the sophisticated tractor-trailer vehicles, thereby enhancing their movement performance in complex environments.
TOPICS: Composite materials, Vehicles, Tracking control, Control equipment, Trajectories (Physics), Theorems (Mathematics), Kinematics, Stability, Predictive control, Simulation results
Mahmood Khatibi and Mohammad Haeri
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036880
This paper explores the fault-tolerant control problem for uncertain impulsive singular LTV systems in the presence of bounded-power or L8 disturbances. Here, a saturation avoidance mechanism is employed to prevent faulty actuators from overloading. Also the conflict between attenuating the effect of L8 disturbances and enlarging the domain of attraction is tackled by proposing a non-constant state feedback controller. In addition, the proposed method is capable of tolerating time-varying faults. The suggested method is implemented on a sample electrical circuit with impulsive and time-varying nature to evaluate its competency.
TOPICS: Actuators, Circuits, State feedback, Control equipment
Technical Brief  
Niraj Choudhary, Sivaramakrishnan Janardhanan and Indra Narayan Kar
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036874
In this note, the analysis of time delay systems using Lambert W function approach is reassessed. A common canonical form of time delay systems is defined. We extended the recent results of [1] for second order into nth order system. The eigenvalues of a time delay system are either real or complex conjugate pairs and therefore, the whole eigenspectrum can be associated with only two real branches of the Lambert W function. A new class of time delay systems is characterized to extend the applicability of the above said method. Moreover, this approach has been exploited to design a controller which places a subset of eigenvalues at desired locations. Stability is guaranteed by using a new algorithm developed in this paper which is based on the Nyquist plot. The approach is validated through numerical examples.
TOPICS: Time delay systems, Eigenvalues, Stability, Control equipment, Algorithms, Design
Tom Nsabwa Kigezi and Julian Dunne
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036886
A general design approach is presented for model-based control of piston position in a free-piston engine (FPE). The proposed approach controls either ‘bottom-dead-centre’ (BDC) or ‘top-dead-centre’ (TDC) position. The key advantage of the approach is that it facilitates controller parameter selection, by way of deriving parameter combinations that yield both stable BDC and stable TDC. Driving the piston motion towards a target compression ratio is therefore achieved with sound engineering insight, consequently allowing repeatable engine cycles for steady power output. The adopted control design approach is based on linear control-oriented models derived from exploitation of energy conservation principles in a two-stroke engine cycle. Two controllers are developed: A Proportional Integral (PI) controller with an associated stability condition expressed in terms of controller parameters, and a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to demonstrate a framework for advanced control design where needed. A detailed analysis is undertaken on two FPE case studies differing only by rebound device type, reporting simulation results for both PI and LQR control. The applicability of the proposed methodology to other common FPE configurations is examined to demonstrate its generality.
TOPICS: Engines, Design, Pistons, Control equipment, Cycles, Energy conservation, Compression, Two-stroke engines, Stability, Acoustical engineering, Simulation results
Soheil Rezayi and Mohammadreza Arbabtafti
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036878
A new variable structure control (VSC) strategy consists of two separate sliding mode controllers (SMC) with a switching mechanism is designed to address position tracking problem of electro-hydraulic servo systems (EHS) with acceleration constraint which can be found in numerous mechatronics and industrial control system applications. Examples include fatigue testing systems, plate hot rolling systems, injection molding machines, hydraulic elevators, and robotic arms. In this paper, at first, a complete model of an electro-hydraulic system is proposed in which detailed mathematical descriptions for all elements are included. Not only is a more accurate model capable of providing a fertile ground for simulation studies, but also it could contribute towards better results in the control approach. Furthermore, based on the variable dynamic behavior of EHS in forward and return motions, two separate SMC synchronizing with a switching mechanism are applied. This novel approach calculate two separate control input in each instance for each dynamic behavior of the system and the switching mechanism decides which one should utilize. It is shown that the proposed control method, despite model uncertainties and external disturbances, tracks the reference position with error in scale of 10-3, and its remarkable accuracy in tracking trajectories with acceleration constraint which has a great deal of importance in the sense of many industrial applications is proved.
TOPICS: Servomechanisms, Sheet molding compound (Plastics), Sliding mode control, Particle filtering (numerical methods), Surface mount components, Environmental health and safety, Control equipment, Elevators, Uncertainty, Mechatronics, Robotics, Errors, Fatigue testing, Hot rolling, Simulation, Industrial controls, Injection molding machines
Alexander C. Yudell and James D. Van de Ven
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036887
Switched Inertance Hydraulic Systems (SIHS) use inductive, capacitive, and switching elements to boost or “buck” (reduce) a pressure from a source to a load in an ideally lossless manner. Real SIHS circuits suffer a variety of energy losses, with throttling of flow during transitions of the high-speed valve resulting in as much as 44% of overall losses. These throttling energy losses can be mitigated by applying the analog of zero-voltage-switching, a soft switching strategy, adopted from power electronics. In the soft switching circuit, the flow that would otherwise be throttled across the transitioning valve is stored in a capacitive element and bypassed through check valves in parallel with the switching valves. To evaluate the effectiveness of soft switching in a boost converter SIHS, a lumped parameter model was constructed. Simulation demonstrates that soft switching improves the efficiency of the modeled circuit by 42% at peak load power and extends the power delivery capabilities by 77%.
TOPICS: Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), Simulation, Stress, Energy dissipation, Peak load, Lumped parameter models, Valves, Circuits, Hydraulic drive systems, Electronics, Hydraulic circuits
Giseo Park, Yoonjin Hwang and Seibum B. Choi
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036881
The vehicle positioning system can be utilized for various automotive applications. Primarily focusing on practicality, this paper presents a new method for vehicle positioning systems using low-cost sensor fusion, which combines global positioning system (GPS) data and data from easily available in-vehicle sensors. As part of the vehicle positioning, a novel nonlinear observer for vehicle velocity and heading angle estimation is designed, and the convergence of estimation error is also investigated using Lyapunov stability analysis. Based on this estimation information, a new adaptive Kalman filter with rule-based logic provides robust and highly accurate estimations of the vehicle position. It adjusts the noise covariance matrices Q and R in order to adapt to various environments, such as different driving maneuvers and ever-changing GPS conditions. The performance of the entire system is verified through experimental results using a commercial vehicle. Finally, through a comparative study, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is confirmed.
TOPICS: Sensors, Vehicles, Errors, Kalman filters, Stability, Noise (Sound), Algorithms, Automotive industry
Sara Dadras, Soodeh Dadras and Hamid Reza Momeni
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036807
A design of LMI-based fractional-order surface for sliding-mode controller of a class of uncertain fractional-order nonlinear systems (FO-NSs) is proposed in this paper. A new switching law is achieved guaranteeing the reachability condition. This control law is established to obtain a sliding-mode controller capable of deriving the state trajectories onto the fractional-order integral switching surface and maintain the sliding motion. Using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), a sufficient condition for existence of the sliding surface is derived which ensures the asymptotical stability on the sliding surface. Through a numerical example, the superior performance of the new fractional-order sliding mode controller is illustrated in comparison with a previously proposed method.
TOPICS: Nonlinear systems, Control equipment, Design, Linear matrix inequalities, Stability
Dooroo Kim, Laura Strickland, Matthew Gross, Jonathan Rogers, Mark Costello, Frank Fresconi and Ilmars Celmins
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036808
Actively controlled gun launched projectiles require a means of modifying the projectile flight trajectory. While numerous potential mechanisms exist, microspoiler devices have been shown to be a promising control actuator for fin-stabilized projectiles in supersonic flight. These devices induce a trim force and moment generated by the boundary-layer shock interaction between the projectile body, rear stabilizing fins, and microspoilers. Previous investigations of microspoiler mechanisms have established estimates of baseline control authority, but experimental results have been restricted to cases in which the mechanism was statically deployed. This paper details the design and flight testing of a projectile equipped with a set of active microspoilers. A mechanical actuator is proposed that exhibits unique advantages in terms of robustness, simplicity, gun-launch survivability, and bandwidth compared to other projectile actuator mechanisms considered to date. A set of integrated test projectiles is constructed using this actuator design, and flight experiments are performed in which the microspoilers are oscillated near the projectile roll frequency. Data obtained from these flight tests are used in parameter estimation studies to experimentally characterize the aerodynamic effects of actively oscillating microspoilers. These predictions compare favorably with estimates obtained from computational fluid dynamics. Overall, the results presented here demonstrate that actively controlled microspoilers can generate reasonably high levels of lateral acceleration suitable for trajectory modification in many smart-weapons applications.
TOPICS: Actuators, Design, Testing, Projectiles, Flight, Trajectories (Physics), Shock (Mechanics), Boundary layers, Computational fluid dynamics, Fins, Parameter estimation, Robustness, Weapons
Technical Brief  
Jian Yuan, Youan Zhang, Jingmao Liu and Bao Shi
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036665
This paper proposes sliding mode control of vibration in three types of single-degree-of-freedom fractional oscillators: the Kelvin-Voigt type, the modified Kelvin-Voigt type and the Duffing type. The dynamical behaviors are all described by second-order differential equations involving fractional derivatives. By introducing state variables of physical significance, the differential equations of motion are transformed into non-commensurate fractional-order state equations. Fractional sliding mode surfaces are constructed and the stability of the sliding mode dynamics is proved by means of the diffusive representation and Lyapunov stability theory. Then, sliding mode control laws are designed for fractional oscillators respectively in cases where the bound of the external exciting force is known or unknown. Furthermore, sliding mode control laws for nonzero initialization case are designed. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to validate the above control designs.
TOPICS: Sliding mode control, Vibration, Differential equations, Stability, Computer simulation, Dynamics (Mechanics)
Technical Brief  
Pingping Qu, Di Zhou and Sheng Sun
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036664
Accounting for the autopilot as second-order dynamics, an observer-based guidance law with terminal impact angle constraint is designed using the dynamic surface control method. Some first-order low-pass filters are introduced into the designing process to avoid the occurrence of high-order derivatives of the line of sight angle in the expression of the guidance law such that the guidance law can be implemented in practical applications. The proposed guidance law is effective in compensating for the second-order autopilot lag. In simulation of intercepting targets with sinusoidal acceleration, the guidance law is compared with the biased proportional navigation guidance law in the presence of missile autopilot lag. Simulation results show that the proposed observer-based guidance law with terminal impact angle constraint is able to guide a missile with large autopilot lag to impact a target with a desired angle and achieve a small miss distance, even if the target escapes in a great and fast maneuver.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Simulation, Design, Low-pass filters, Missiles, Navigation, Simulation results, Autopilots, Accounting
Per Johansen, Daniel Beck Roemer, Torben O. Andersen and Henrik C. Pedersen
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036554
A fundamental part of a digital fluid power (DFP) pump is the actively controlled valves, whereby successful application of these pumps entail a need for control methods. The focus of the current paper is on a flow control method for a digital fluid power pump. The method separates the control task concerning timing of the valve activation and the task concerning the overall flow output control. This enables application of linear control theory in the design process of the DFP pump flow controller. The linearization method is presented in a general framework and an application with a DFP pump model exemplify the use of the method. The implementation of a discrete time linear controller and comparisons between the nonlinear model and the discrete time linear approximation shows the applicability of the control method.
TOPICS: Fluids, Pumps, Flow control, Flow (Dynamics), Valves, Control equipment, Design, Control theory, Approximation
Selvaraj P, Sakthivel Rathinasamy, Kwon O.M and Muslim M
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036564
This paper focuses on the problem of disturbance rejection for a class of interval type-2 fuzzy systems via equivalence-input-disturbance (EID) based approach. The main objective of this work is to design a fuzzy state-feedback controller combined with a disturbance estimator such that the output of the fuzzy system perfectly tracks the given reference signal without steady state error and produces an EID to eliminate the influence of the actual disturbances. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov function and using linear matrix inequality technique, a new set of sufficient conditions is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities for the existence of fuzzy controller. Finally, a simple pendulum model is considered to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed EID based control design.
TOPICS: Fuzzy logic, Design, Control equipment, Linear matrix inequalities, Pendulums, Signals, State feedback, Steady state, Errors
Technical Brief  
Halil I. Basturk
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036549
We develop an observer based boundary controller for the rotary table to suppress stick-slip oscillations and maintain the angular velocity of the drill string at a desired value during a drilling process despite unknown friction torque and by using only surface measurements. The control design is based on a distributed model of the drill string. The obtained infinite dimensional model is converted to an ODE-PDE coupled system. The observer based controller is designed by reformulating the problem as the stabilization of an LTI system which is affected by a constant unknown disturbance and has simultaneous actuator and sensor delays. The main contribution of the controller is that it requires only surface measurements. We prove that the equilibrium of the closed loop system is exponentially stable and the angular velocity regulation is achieved with the estimations of unknown friction torque and drill bit velocity. The effectiveness of the controller is demonstrated in numerical simulations.
TOPICS: Oscillations, Drilling, Design, Stick-slip, Control equipment, Drill strings, Torque, Friction, Sensors, Bits (Tools), Equilibrium (Physics), Actuators, Computer simulation, Closed loop systems, Delays
Janne Koivumäki and Jouni Mattila
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036537
This paper proposes, for the first time without using any linearization or order-reduction, an adaptive and model-based discharge pressure control design for the variable displacement axial piston pumps (VDAPPs), whose dynamical behaviours are highly nonlinear and can be described by a fourth-order differential equation. The rigorous stability proof, with an asymptotic convergence, is given for the entire system. In the proposed novel controller design method, the specifically designed stabilizing terms constitute an essential core to cancel out all the stability-preventing terms. The experimental results reveal that rapid parameter adaptation significantly improves the feedback signal tracking precision compared to a known-parameter controller design. In the comparative experiments, the adaptive controller design demonstrates the state-of-the-art discharge pressure control performance, enabling a possibility for energy consumption reductions in hydraulic systems driven with VDAPP.
TOPICS: Pumps, Displacement, Pressure, Pistons, Control equipment, Design, Pressure control, Stability, Signals, Design methodology, Differential equations, Energy consumption, Feedback, Hydraulic drive systems
Donald Docimo and Hosam K. Fathy
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036557
This article presents an analysis of the damping and beating effects within the aggregate power demand of heterogeneous thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs). Demand response using TCLs is an appealing method to enable higher levels of penetration of intermittent renewable resources into the electric grid. Previous literature covers the benefits of TCL population heterogeneity for control purposes, but the focus is solely on the damping observed in these systems. This work, in contrast, characterizes the combined damping and beating effects in the power demand for different types of TCL parameter heterogeneity. The forced aggregate dynamics of TCLs have been shown to be bilinear when set point temperature adjustment is used as a control input. This motivates the article’s use of free response dynamics, which are linear, to characterize both the damping and beating phenomena. A stochastic parameter distribution is applied to the homogeneous power demand solution, furnishing an analytic expression for the aggregate power demand. The time-varying damping ratios of this reduced-order model characterize the damping in the system. By analyzing a variety of case studies, it is determined that only a distribution of the TCL characteristic requency creates damping in the aggregate power dynamics. The beating effect decays over time due to damping, and a relationship between the beat’s amplitude and period is presented.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Stress, Damping, Temperature
Yu-Hui Wang, Qian-Xian Wu and Xinyan Liu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036551
A robust fuzzy sliding mode controller is presented for a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) Dutch-Roll system with nonaffine inputs and external disturbances. An integrating factor with a nonlinear saturation function is introduced to construct a nonlinear integral sliding mode surface to provide better transient response than traditional sliding mode control. Fuzzy logic systems are employed to approximate the unknown nonaffine part of the system directly. Based on Lyapunov method, the tracking errors are guaranteed to be asymptotically stable with the additional adaptive compensation terms. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed controller, the Dutch-Roll system is presented for simulation.
TOPICS: Sliding mode control, Control equipment, Fuzzy logic, Simulation, Transients (Dynamics), Errors, Lyapunov methods
Ali Khudhair Al-jiboory, Guoming George Zhu and Shupeng Zhang
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036539
This paper presents experimental investigation results of an Electric Variable Valve Timing (EVVT) actuator using Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) system identification and control. For the LPV system identification, a number of local system identification tests were carried out to obtain a family of Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) models at fixed engine speed and battery voltage. Using engine speed and battery voltage as time-varying scheduling parameters, the family of local LTI models are translated into a single LPV model. Then, a Robust Gain-Scheduling (RGS) dynamic output-feedback controller with guaranteed H_infinity performance was synthesized and validated experimentally based on the identified LPV model. In contrast to the vast majority of gain-scheduling literature, scheduling parameters are assumed to be polluted by measurement noises and the engine speed and battery voltage are modeled as noisy scheduling parameters. Experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the developed approach.
TOPICS: Actuators, Valves, Control modeling, Batteries, Engines, Gain scheduling, Control equipment, Noise (Sound), Feedback, Simulation results

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