Accepted Manuscripts

Jianfeng Huang, Jianlong Zhang, Wei Huang and Chengliang Yin
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039859
This paper introduces a generic function for automated modeling and feedforward control of planetary gears (PG). Given the information on configuration, namely the internal connection relationship between each PG, location of external torques, location and locking state of each clutch, this function outputs a ready-to-use kinetic model, which contains the symbolic matrices. The derived kinetic model can then be converted into numeric form by substituting the symbols in the matrix with real values and used for simulation, analysis or controller design. Since the output of the function is in symbolic form, it provides the theoretically most accurate results. Furthermore, compared to other kinds of automated modeling techniques for PG, the proposed function is: a) more “straightforward” in a sense that it relies solely on direct matrix formulation and no other methods such as system identification are needed and therefore can be implemented in a single environment such as MATLAB; b) more “generic” since it is capable of deriving both full-DOF and reduced-DOF models for virtually any configuration regardless of the number, connection and location of input/output shafts or clutches. By exchanging certain variables in the list of unknowns and knowns, the function can also be used to facilitate the design of feedforward controllers.
TOPICS: Modeling, Planetary gears, Design, Control equipment, Feedforward control, Matlab, Simulation analysis
Xiaojun Li and Alan Palazzolo
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039857
The modeling and control of a recently developed utility-scale, shaftless, high strength steel energy storage flywheel system (SHFES) are presented. The novel flywheel is designed with an energy/power capability of 100 kWh/100kW and has the potential of a doubled energy density when compared to conventional technologies. In addition, it includes a unique combination magnetic bearing (CAMB) capable of providing 5-degrees-of- freedom (5-DOF) magnetic levitation. Initial test results show that the CAMB, which weighs 544 kg, can provide a stable lift-up and levitation control for the 5543Kg flywheel. The object of this paper is to formulate and synthesize a detailed model as well as to design and simulate a closed-loop control system for the proposed flywheel system. To this end, the CAMB supporting structures are considered flexible and modeled by finite element modeling. The magnetic bearing is characterized experimentally by static and frequency-dependent coefficients, the latter of which are caused by eddy current effects and presents a challenge to the levitation control. Sensor-runout disturbances are also measured and included. System nonlinearities in power amplifiers and the controller are considered as well. Even though the flywheel has a large ratio of the primary-to-transversal moment of inertias, Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) feedback control demonstrates its effectiveness in canceling gyroscopic toques at the designed operational spinning speed. Various stages of PD controllers, lead/lag compensators, and notch filters are implemented to suppress the high-frequency sensor disturbances, structural vibrations, and rotor imbalance effects.
TOPICS: Flywheels, Energy storage, Magnetic bearings, Levitation, Sensors, Control equipment, Eddies (Fluid dynamics), Spinning (Textile), Eddy currents (Electricity), High strength steel, Control systems, Density, Magnetic levitation, Spin (Aerodynamics), Design, Finite element analysis, Modeling, Rotors, Vibration, Feedback, Filters, Control modeling
Chong Ke and Xingyong Song
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039787
The unconventional down-hole resources such as shale oil and gas has gradually become a critical form of energy supply thanks to the recent petroleum technology advancement. Its economically viable and reliable production highly depends on the proper operation and control of the down-hole drilling system. The trend of deeper drilling in a complex environment requires a more effective and reliable control optimization scheme, either for pre-drilling planning or on-line optimal control. Given the nonlinear nature of the drilling system, such an optimal control is not trivial. In this paper, we present a method based on Dynamic Programming (DP) that can lead to a computationally efficient drilling control optimization. A drilling dynamics model that can enable this method is first constructed, and the DP algorithm is customized so much improved computational efficiency can be achieved compared with using standard DP. A higher order dynamics model is then used to validate the effectiveness of the optimized control, and the control robustness is also evaluated by adding perturbations to the model. The results verify that the proposed approach is effective and efficient to solve the down-hole drilling control optimization problem.
TOPICS: Drilling, Dynamic programming, Optimization, Dynamics (Mechanics), Optimal control, Algorithms, Oil technology, Robustness, Shales
Seyed Hasan Mirtalaie
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039785
In this article, the free vibration behavior of functionally graded (FG) thin annular sector plates in thermal environment is studied using the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM). The material properties of the FG plate are assumed to be temperature dependent and vary continuously through the thickness, according to the power-law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The nonlinear temperature distribution along the thickness direction of the plate is considered. Based on the classical plate theory the governing differential equations of motion of the plate are derived and solved numerically using DQM. The natural frequencies of thin FG annular sector plates in thermal environment under various combinations of clamped, free and simply supported boundary conditions are presented for the first time. To ensure the accuracy of the method, the natural frequencies of a pure metallic plate are calculated and compared with those exist in the literature for the homogeneous plate where the results are in good agreement. The effects of temperature field, boundary conditions, volume fraction exponent, radius ratio and the sector angle on the free vibrations of the FG-plate are examined.
TOPICS: Plates (structures), Free vibrations, Boundary-value problems, Temperature distribution, Plate theory, Temperature, Temperature effects, Materials properties, Differential equations
Daichi Fujioka and William Singhose
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039786
This paper presents an optimized input-shaped model reference control (OIS-MRC) for limiting oscillation of multi-mode flexible systems. The controller is analyzed by using it to control an uncertain, time-varying double-pendulum using a linear single-pendulum reference model. Single- and double-pendulum dynamics are presented, and the significant natural frequency ranges of the double-pendulum are calculated. A Lyapunov control law using only the first mode states of the plant is obtained. An optimization technique is used to obtain the OIS-MRC controller parameters that realizes the shortest time duration, while meeting a set of design constraints. The oscillation suppression, control effort reduction, and disturbance rejection performances of the proposed OIS-MRC controller is tested via numerical simulations and experiments. The OIS-MRC achieves a robust oscillation suppression performance, while reducing the rise time.
TOPICS: Pendulums, Oscillations, Control equipment, Computer simulation, Design, Optimization, Dynamics (Mechanics), Flexible systems
Review Article  
Aicha Hachana and M. N. Harmas
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039716
In this paper, a new robust terminal synergetic control scheme is proposed to regulate blood glucose level in diabetic patients (Type I diabetes), based on recently developed synergetic control and a terminal attractor technique. The technique presented has the advantage of using a continuous control law. Moreover, the proposed control scheme, besides being chattering free, has the characteristics of nite time convergence. Lyapunov synthesis is adopted to ensure controlled system stability. Simulation results of terminal synergetic control are compared to classic synergetic and second order sliding mode control performance, demonstrating that the proposed control method allows for rapidly achieving normoglycemia in Type I diabetes patients.
TOPICS: Diabetes, Blood glucose, Attractors, Stability, Sliding mode control, Simulation results
Zhaobo Qin, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li and Huei Peng
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039687
Hybrid tracked vehicles are common in construction, agriculture and military applications. Most use a series hybrid powertrain with large motors and operate at a relatively low efficiency. Although some researchers have proposed power-split powertrains, most of these would require an additional mechanism to achieve skid steering. To solve this problem and enhance drivability, a single-mode power-split hybrid powertrain for tracked vehicles with two outputs connected to the left and right tracks is proposed. The powertrain with three planetary gears would then be able to control the torque on the two tracks independently and achieve skid steering. This powertrain has three degrees of freedom, allowing for control of the output torques and the engine speed independently from the vehicle running speed. All design candidates with three planetary gears are exhaustively searched to obtain the optimal design. Efficient topology design selection with parameter sizing and component sizing are accomplished using the enhanced progressive iteration approach to achieve better fuel economy using downsized components.
TOPICS: Design, Tracked vehicles, Planetary gears, Degrees of freedom, Vehicles, Defense industry, Topology, Fuel efficiency, Torque, Engines, Corporate average fuel economy, Motors, Construction
Zhihui Li, Yaoxing Shang, Zongxia Jiao, Shuai Wu and Jianyong Yao
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039663
Electro-hydraulic load simulator (EHLS) is a typical closed-loop torque control system. It is used to simulate the load of aircraft actuator on ground hardware-in-the-loop simulation and experiments. In general, EHLS is fixed with actuator shaft together. Thus, the movement of actuator has interference torque named the surplus torque on the EHLS. The surplus torque is not only related to the velocity of the actuator movement, but also related to the frequency of actuator movement. Especially when the model of the actuator and EHLS are dissimilar, the surplus torque is obviously different on different frequencies. In order to eliminate the surplus torque for accurate load simulation, the actuator velocity input feedforword compensating method (AVIFC) is proposed in this paper. In this strategy, the actuator velocity synchronous signals are used for compensation of different frequency actuator movement to eliminate surplus torque on different frequencies. Firstly, the mathematical model of EHLS and the actuator system is established. Based on the models, the AVIFC method is proposed. It reveals the reason that generates surplus torque on different frequencies of actuator. For verification, simulations and experiments are conducted to prove that the new strategy performs well against low, medium and high frequency movement interference. The results show that this method can effectively suppress the surplus torque with different frequencies, and improve precision of EHLS with actuator movement.
TOPICS: Stress, Actuators, Torque, Simulation, Hardware, Aircraft, Signals, Torque control
Yi Dong and Jie Huang
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039666
The consensus problem for multiple Euler-lagrange systems has been extensively studied under various assumptions on the connectivity of the communication graph. In practice, it is desirable to enable the control law the capability of maintaining the connectivity of the communication graph, thus achieving consensus without assuming the connectivity of the communication graph. We call such a problem as consensus with connectivity preservation. In this paper, we will consider solving this problem for multiple uncertain Euler-lagrange systems. By combining the adaptive control technique and potential function technique, we will show that such a problem is solvable under a set of standard assumptions. By employing different potential functions, our approach will also lead to the solution of such problems as rendezvous, flocking and so on.
TOPICS: Preservation, Multi-agent systems, Adaptive control
Shadi Tasdighi Kalat, Siamak G. Faal and Cagdas D. Onal
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039669
We present a novel approach to achieve decentralized distribution of forces in a multi-robot system. In this approach, each robot in the group relies on the behavior of a cooperative virtual teammate that is defined independent of the population and formation of the real team. Consequently, such formulation eliminates the need for inter-agent communications or leader-follower architectures. In particular, effectiveness of the method is studied in a collective manipulation problem where the objective is to control the position and orientation of a body in time. To experimentally validate the performance of the proposed method, a new swarm agent, Dr (Delta-Rho) is introduced. A multi-robot system, consisting of five Dr agents is then utilized as the experimental setup. The obtained results are also compared with a norm-optimal centralized controller by quantitative metrics. Experimental results prove the performance of the algorithm in different tested scenarios and demonstrate a scalable, versatile, and robust system-level behavior.
TOPICS: Control equipment, Robots, Algorithms, Architecture, Teams
Zhang Chen and Sun Zongxuan
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039664
Previously, the authors have proposed the concept of piston trajectory-based HCCI combustion control enabled by a free piston engine and shown its benefits on both engine thermal efficiency and emissions by implementing various piston trajectories. In order to realize the HCCI trajectory-based combustion control in practical applications, a control-oriented model with sufficient chemical kinetics information has to be developed. In this paper, such a model is proposed and its performance, in terms of computational speed and model fidelity, are compared to three existing models: a simplified model using a one-step global reaction, a reduced-order model using Jones-Lindstedt mechanism and a complex physics-based model including detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. A unique phase separation method is proposed to significantly reduce the computational time and guarantee the prediction accuracy simultaneously. In addition, the paper also shows that the high fidelity of the proposed model is sustained at multiple working conditions, including different air-fuel ratios, various compression ratios and distinct piston motion patterns between the two end positions. Finally, an example is presented showing how the control-oriented model enables real time optimization of the HCCI combustion phasing by varying the trajectories. The simulation results show that the combustion phasing can be adjusted quickly as desired, which further demonstrates the effectiveness of the piston trajectory-based combustion control.
TOPICS: Combustion, Trajectories (Physics), Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines, Pistons, Simulation results, Piston engines, Emissions, Chemical reactions, Thermal efficiency, Optimization, Compression, Phase separation, Fuels, Engines, Physics, Chemical kinetics
JiangPeng Song, Di Zhou and GuangLi Sun
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039670
The line-of-sight kinematics and dynamics of a mirror-stabilized platform are derived using the virtual mass stabilization method. Accounting for the coupled and nonlinear kinematics and dynamics, the uncertainty of external disturbances, and the actuator input saturation in the mirror-stabilized platform, a modified adaptive robust control scheme is proposed based on the command filtered method and the extended state observer. The command filtered approach is used to ensure the stability and tracking performance of the adaptive control system under the input saturation. In the proposed scheme, the extended state observer is designed to observe the modeling error and unknown external disturbances. The stability of the control system is proved using the Lyapunov method. Simulation results and experimental results proved that the proposed control scheme can effectively reduce the occurrence of input saturation, attenuate the effect of unknown disturbances, and improve the position tracking accuracy.
TOPICS: Robust control, Mirrors, Kinematics, Dynamics (Mechanics), Stability, State estimation, Uncertainty, Accounting, Control systems, Adaptive control, Actuators, Modeling, Simulation results, Errors, Lyapunov methods
Jonas Lauridsen and Ilmar F. Santos
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039665
Proper design of feedback controllers is crucial for ensuring high performance of Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported rotor dynamic systems. Annular seals in those systems can contribute with significant forces, which, in many cases, are hard to model in advance due to complex geometries of the seal and multiphase fluids. Hence, it can be challenging to design AMB controllers that will guarantee robust performance for these kinds of systems. This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and experimental results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjected to dynamic seal forces. The controllers are found using H-infinity - and µ synthesis and are based on a global rotor dynamic model in-which the seal coefficients are identified in-situ. The controllers are implemented in a rotor-dynamic test facility with two radial AMBs and one annular seal with an adjustable inlet pressure. The seal is a smooth annular type, with large clearance (worn seal) and with high pre-swirl, which generates significant cross-coupled forces. The H-infinity controller is designed to compensate for the seal forces and the µ controller is furthermore designed to be robust against a range of pressures across the seal. Experimental and simulation results shows that significant performance can be achieved using the model based controllers compared to a reference decentralised Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and robustness against large variations of pressure across the seal can be improved by use of robust synthesised controllers.
TOPICS: Control equipment, Design, Rotors, Magnetic bearings, Pressure, Fluids, Simulation, Clearances (Engineering), Feedback, Dynamic systems, Robustness, Simulation results, Test facilities, Dynamic models
Saravanan Shanmugam and M.Syed Ali
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039667
In this paper investigates the issue of finite-time stability analysis of time-delayed neural networks. By introducing a new Lyapunov functional which uses the information on the delay sufficiently and an augmented Lyapunov functional which contains some triple integral terms. Some improved delay-dependent stability criteria are derived using the Jensen's inequality, reciprocally convex combination methods. Then the finite-time stability conditions are solving by the Linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Numerical examples are finally presented to verify the effectiveness of the obtained results
TOPICS: Stability, Artificial neural networks, Delays, Linear matrix inequalities
Daniel Newman, Seong-Wook Hong and Joshua Vaughan
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039668
Input Shaping is widely used in the control of flexible systems due to its effectiveness and ease of implementation. Due to its open-loop nature, it is often overlooked as a control method in systems where parametric uncertainty or force disturbances are present. However, if the disturbances are known and finite in duration, their effect on the flexible mode can be approximated by formulating an initial condition control problem. With this knowledge, an input shaper can be designed which cancels the initial oscillation, resulting in minimal residual vibration. By incorporating Specified Insensitivity robustness constraints, such shapers can be designed to ensure good performance in the presence of modeling uncertainty. This input shaping method is demonstrated through computer and experimental methods to eliminate vibration in actuator bandwidth-limited systems.
TOPICS: Oscillations, Actuators, Design, Experimental methods, Modeling, Vibration, Computers, Robustness, Uncertainty, Flexible systems
Technical Brief  
Cristian Rostiti, Yuxing Liu, Marcello Canova, Stephanie Stockar, Gang Chen, Hussein Dourra and Michael Prucka
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039562
Nonlinear dynamics in the transmission and drive shafts of automotive powertrains, such as backlash, induce significant torque fluctuations at the wheels during tip-in and tip-out transients, deteriorating drivability. Several strategies are currently present in production vehicles to mitigate those effects. However, most of them are based on open-loop filtering of the driver torque demand, leading to sluggish acceleration performance. To improve the torque management algorithms for drivability and customer acceptability, the powertrain controller must be able to compensate for the wheel torque fluctuations without penalizing the vehicle response. This paper presents a novel backlash compensator for automotive drivetrain, realized via real-time Model Predictive Control (MPC). Starting from a high fidelity driveline model, the MPC-based compensator is designed to mitigate the drive shaft torque fluctuations by modifying the nominal spark timing during a backlash traverse event. Experimental tests were conducted with the compensator integrated into the engine ECU of a production passenger vehicle. Tip-in transients at low gear conditions were considered to verify the ability of the compensator to reduce the torque overshoot when backlash crossing occurs.
TOPICS: Predictive control, Torque, Fluctuations (Physics), Vehicles, Wheels, Transients (Dynamics), Algorithms, Gears, Filtration, Control equipment, Engines, Nonlinear dynamics
Levi/H Manring and Noah Manring
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039572
In this paper, an efficiency map is created for a double-acting, single-rod hydraulic-actuator using a critically-centered four-way spool valve and a load-sensing pump. The purpose of this research is to provide an understanding of the performance of a valve-controlled hydraulic actuator under all operating conditions. This paper considers a four-quadrant set of operating conditions, where each quadrant represents a different combination of actuator retraction or extension and overrunning or resistive loading. This four-quadrant efficiency map is the first presentation of its kind in the literature, and clearly demonstrates the performance characteristics and limitations for this hydraulic system. For its most common operation of an actuator extending under a resistive load, the map shows that this system can operate at over 82% efficiency and can move large loads. The map also shows physical limitations for the system, such as maximum pressure limits, maximum displacement limits, and valve limits. The efficiency map is plotted in nondimensional form, which presents the most general understanding of system performance and also allows dimensional values to be reconstructed for a similar system of any size.
TOPICS: Stress, Actuators, Pumps, Valves, Displacement, Hydraulic drive systems, Performance characterization, Pressure
Aldo Jonathan Muñoz-Vázquez, Carlos Vázquez-Aguilera, Vicente Parra Vega and Anand Sanchez-Orta
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039487
The problem addressed in this paper is the on-line differentiation of a signal/function that possesses a continuous but not necessarily differentiable derivative. In the realm of (integer) high-order sliding modes, a continuous differentiator provides the exact estimation of the derivative f'(t), of f (t), by assuming the boundedness of its second-order derivative, f"(t), but it has been pointed out that if f'(t) is casted as a Hölder function, then f'(t) is continuous but not necessarily differentiable, and as a consequence, the existence of f"(t) is not guaranteed, but even in such a case, the derivative of f(t) can be exactly estimated by means of a continuous fractional sliding mode based differentiator. Then, the properties of fractional sliding modes, as exact differentiators, are studied. The novelty of the proposed differentiator is twofold: i) it is continuous, and ii) it provides the finite-time exact estimation of f'(t), even if f"(t) does not exist. A numerical study is discussed to show the reliability of the proposed scheme.
TOPICS: Reliability, Signals
Huan Do, Jongeun Choi, Chae Young Lim and Tapabrata Maiti
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039286
Appearance-based localization is a type of robot self-navigation technique, in which the environment map describes a visual features map instead of a geometrical features map. Since images are high dimensional, commonly learning schemes are developed based on features space instead of image space. Therefore, the localization performance essentially depends on the set of chosen visual features. For a high dimensional feature space, choosing the optimal set of features by handcrafting is impractical. Thus, we build a regression model based on extracted visual features from raw images as predictors to estimate the robot's location in 2-D coordinates. We define our supervised learning problem as: given the training data, our model finds the optimal subset of the features that maximizes the localization performance. To tackle the problem, we propose an integrated localization model that consists of two main components: the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression followed by a filtering estimator. In this study, we examine two candidates for the filtering estimator: the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Particle Filter (PF). From a raw image, we extract a number of visual features, viz. Fast Fourier Transform, color histogram, and the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). Our method is implemented in both indoor mobile robot and outdoor vehicle equipped with an omni-directional camera. The results validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
TOPICS: Mobile robots, Filtration, Particulate matter, Robots, Shrinkage (Materials), Vehicles, Fast Fourier transforms, Filters, Kalman filters, Navigation, Regression models
Dawei Pi, Xianhui Wang, Hongliang Wang and Zhenxing Kong
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4039185
In this paper, a hierarchical control logic for 2-channel hydraulic active roll control (ARC) system, which includes vehicle level control and actuator level control is proposed. Vehicle level control consists of anti-roll torque controller and anti-roll torque distributor. The anti-roll torque controller is designed with 'PID+feedforward' algorithm to calculate the total anti-roll moment. The anti-roll torque distributor is devised based on fuzzy control method to implement an anti-roll moment allocation between the front and rear stabilizer bar. Actuator level control is designed based on pressure and displacement respectively. The contrastive analysis of the two proposed actuator control method is presented. The hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test platform is proposed to evaluate the performance of the devised control algorithm. The HIL simulation result illustrates that actuator displacement control could generate a relatively accurate anti-roll moment, and the vehicle roll stability, yaw stability can be enhanced by the proposed ARC control method.
TOPICS: Torque, Pressure, Stability, Control systems, Control equipment, Hardware, Fuzzy control, Actuators, Algorithms, Vehicles, Displacement, Simulation results, Yaw, Control algorithms

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