Accepted Manuscripts

Pin Lin Liu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036409
This paper will study the exponential stable and state feedback stabilization of time-delay singular systems with saturation actuators. Some sufficient conditions for existence of controller are obtained by using the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and integral inequality approach (IIA). When these LMIs are feasible, explicit expression of controller is obtained. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional techniques, a novel exponential stabilization criterion has been also derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be easily solved with efficient convex optimization algorithm. Our results are less conservative than some existing ones, and the decision variables involved in this paper are less than them. Examples illustrate our results as less conservative than those reported in literature.
TOPICS: Actuators, Delays, Stability, State feedback, Control equipment, Linear matrix inequalities, Optimization algorithms
Patrick Gorzelic, Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeff Sterniak
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036407
A parameter adaptation method for a previously developed spark ignition (SI) to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion mode transition control architecture is described. The goal of the adaptive method is to use transient SI-HCCI transition data gathered in online operation to tune the controller model parameters on a cylinder individual basis, in order to improve the accuracy of the controller's model-based calculations and account for cylinder to cylinder variability and drifts over time. The parameter adaptation is implemented on an experimental engine in an indirect adaptive control structure where the model parameters of the SI-HCCI transition controller are updated based on real-time measurements and used in subsequent model-based calculations. Comparison of SI-HCCI transition responses before and after adaptation at a single operating condition shows notable benefits from use of the adaptive method. When tested at differing operating points, the performance of the adapted controller remains overwhelmingly favorable to that of the baseline controller even when conditioned on data from only a single operating point.
TOPICS: Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines, Control equipment, Cylinders, Ignition, Combustion, Engines, Adaptive control, Transients (Dynamics)
Technical Brief  
Verica Radisavljevic-Gajic, Milos Milanovic and G. M. Clayton
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036408
A new technique was presented that facilitates design of independent full-state feedback controllers at the subsystem levels. Different types of local controllers, for example, eigenvalue assignment, robust, optimal (in some sense ) may be used to control different subsystems. This feature has not been available for any other known linear feedback controller design technique. In the second part of the paper, we specialize the results obtained to the three time-scale linear control systems (singularly perturbed control systems) that have natural decomposition into slow, fast, and very fast subsystems. The proposed technique eliminates numerical ill-conditioning of the original three-time scale problems. The newly proposed three-stage feedback controller design is demonstrated on the eighth-order proton exchange membrane fuel cell model.
TOPICS: Control systems, Control equipment, Design, Feedback, Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Pole placement, Engineering design processes, Eigenvalues
Farbod Khoshnoud, Ibrahim I. Esat, Clarence W. de Silva, Michael McKerns and Houman Owhadi
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036367
The energy that is needed for operating a self-powered device is provided by the energy excess in the system in the form of kinetic energy, or a combination of regenerative and renewable energy. This paper addresses the energy exchange issues pertaining to regenerative and renewable energy in the development of a self-powered dynamic system. A rigorous framework that explores the supply and demand of energy for self-powered systems is developed, which considers uncertainties and optimal bounds, in the context of optimal uncertainty quantification. Examples of regenerative and solar-powered systems are given, and the analysis of self-powered feedback control for developing a fully self-powered dynamic system is discussed.
TOPICS: Dynamic systems, Uncertainty quantification, Renewable energy, Supply and demand, Uncertainty, Solar energy, Feedback, Kinetic energy
Cheung-Chieh Ku and Guan-Wei Chen
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036365
This paper investigates a delay-dependent robust control problem of discrete-time uncertain stochastic systems with delays. The uncertainty considered in this paper is time-varying but norm-bounded, and the delays are considered as interval time-varying case for both state and input. According to considerations of uncertainty, stochastic behavior and time-delays, the problem considered in this paper is more general than the existing works for uncertain stochastic systems. Via the proposed Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, some sufficient conditions are derived into the extended Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) form. Moreover, Jensen Inequality and free matrix equation are employed to reduce conservatism of those conditions. Through using the proposed design method, a Gain-Scheduled (GS) controller is designed to guarantee asymptotical stability of uncertain stochastic systems in the sense of mean square. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate applicability and effectiveness of the proposed design method.
TOPICS: Robust control, Delays, Stochastic systems, Uncertainty, Design methodology, Linear matrix inequalities, Stability, Control equipment
Hongqian Lu, Xu Zhang and Xianlin Huang
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036364
The design of nonlinear tracking controller for antagonistic tendon-driven joint has garnered considerable attention, whereas many existing control methodologies are impractical in the real-time applications due to complexity of computations. In this work, a robust adaptive control method for controlling antagonistic tendon-driven joint is mainly studied by combining adaptive control with mapping filtered forwarding technique. To enhance the robustness of the closed-loop systems, the true viscous friction coefficients are not needed to be known in our controller design. Typically, to tackle the problem of “explosion of complexity”, filters are introduced to bridge the virtual controls such that the controller is decomposed into several sub-modules. Mappings and their analytic derivatives are computed by these filters, and the mathematical operations of nonlinearities are greatly simplified. The block diagram of this controller of tendon driven joint is provided, and controller performances are validated through simulations.
TOPICS: Adaptive control, Tendons, Uncertainty, Control equipment, Filters, Design, Engineering simulation, Closed loop systems, Computation, Simulation, Friction, Explosions, Bridges (Structures), Robustness
Tanmay Rajpurohit and Wassim M. Haddad
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036033
In this paper, we develop a unified framework to address the problem of optimal nonlinear analysis and feedback control for partial stability and partial-state stabilization of stochastic dynamical systems. Partial asymptotic stability in probability of the closed-loop nonlinear system is guaranteed by means of a Lyapunov function that is positive definite and decrescent with respect to part of the system state which can clearly be seen to be the solution to the steady-state form of the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, and hence, guaranteeing both partial stability in probability and optimality. The overall framework provides the foundation for extending optimal linear-quadratic stochastic controller synthesis to nonlinear-nonquadratic optimal partial-state stochastic stabilization. Connections to optimal linear and nonlinear regulation for linear and nonlinear time-varying stochastic systems with quadratic and nonlinear-nonquadratic cost functionals are also provided. Finally, we also develop optimal feedback controllers for affine stochastic nonlinear systems using an inverse optimality framework tailored to the partial-state stochastic stabilization problem and use this result to address polynomial and multilinear forms in the performance criterion.
TOPICS: Dynamic systems, Feedback, Stability, Control equipment, Nonlinear systems, Probability, Steady state, Stochastic systems, Polynomials
Sakthivel Rathinasamy, Arunkumar A., Mathiyalagan Kalidass and Ju H. Park
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036237
This paper investigates the problem of robust stabilization for a class of discrete-time TS fuzzy systems via input random delays in control input. The main objective of this paper is to design a state feedback H¥ controller. Linear matrix inequality approach together with the construction of proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is employed for obtaining delay dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of robust H¥ controller. In particular, the effect of both variation range and distribution probability of the time delay are taken into account in the control input. The key feature of the proposed results in this paper is that the time-varying delay in the control input not only dependent on the bound but also the distribution probability of the time delay. The obtained results are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily solved by using the standard optimization algorithms. Finally, a numerical example with simulation result is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained control law and less conservativeness of the proposed result.
TOPICS: Fuzzy logic, Delays, State feedback, Probability, Linear matrix inequalities, Control equipment, Optimization algorithms, Construction, Design, Simulation results, Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy models
Patrick Gorzelic, Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Jeff Sterniak
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036232
This paper describes a model-based feedback control method to transition from spark ignition (SI) to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in gasoline engines. The purpose of the control structure is to improve robustness and reduce calibration complexity by incorporating feedback of the engine variables into nonlinear model-based calculations which inherently generalize across operating points. This type of structure is sought as an alternative to prior SI-HCCI transition approaches which involve open-loop calibration of input command sequences which must be scheduled by operating condition. The control architecture is designed for cam switching type SI-HCCI mode transition strategies with practical two-stage cam profile hardware, which previously have only been investigated in a purely open-loop framework. Experimental results on a prototype engine show that the control architecture is able to carry out SI-HCCI transitions across the HCCI load range at 2000 RPM engine speed while requiring variation of only one major set point and three minor set points with operating condition. These results suggest a noteworthy improvement in controller generality and ease of calibration relative to previous SI-HCCI transition approaches.
TOPICS: Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines, Engines, Calibration, Feedback, Ignition, Robustness, Gasoline engines, Hardware, Stress, Engineering prototypes, Combustion, Control equipment
Elham Javidmanesh
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036229
In this paper, delayed BAM neural networks, which consist of one neuron in the X-layer and other neurons in the Y-layer, will be studied. Hopf bifurcation analysis of these systems will be discussed by proposing a general method. In fact, a general n-neuron BAM neural network model is considered and the associated characteristic equation is studied by classification according to n. Here, n can be chosen arbitrarily. Moreover, we find an appropriate Lyapunov function that under a hypothesis, results in global stability. Numerical examples are also presented.
TOPICS: Stability, Artificial neural networks, Bifurcation, Neural network models
Jiao Zhou, Kai Zhang and Gengkai Hu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036228
In the framework of wave based method, we have examined swing motion control for double pendulum and load hoist models, respectively. Emphases are placed on wave scattering by the middle load mass in the double pendulum model and on time-varying configuration in the load hoist model. By analyzing wave transmission and reflection, trolley’s motion to alleviate swing is designed by absorbing reflected wave through adjusting the velocity of trolley. Simulation and experiment are also conducted to validate the proposed control method. The results show that with the designed trolley’s motion swings of load can be significantly reduced for both double pendulum model, suspended rod model which is demonstrated a special case of double pendulum model, and load hoist model. Simulation results agree well with the experimental measurement. Launch velocity profiles may have important impact on motion design, especially on force necessary to displace trolley. Finally, a wave based feedback control is also discussed to demonstrate the flexibility of method.
TOPICS: Cranes, Stress, Waves, Pendulums, Hoists, Scattering (Physics), Simulation results, Design, Feedback, Reflection, Simulation, Motion control
Technical Brief  
Patricio Ordaz-Oliver
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036227
This paper addresses to demonstrate the Uniform-Ultimately Bounded Stability (UUB-Stability) of the PD+ compensator where the joint velocity is not available to be measured but rather it is estimated. The proposed stabilization control strategy is developed for a “n” degree of freedom Robotic Manipulator process where the joint speed is not available to be measured, furthermore, the external disturbances and/or uncertain dynamics are considered in the system dynamics. To conclude the closed-loop robust stabilization, the proposed feedback strategy is based on nonlinear state estimation with a Luenberger-like observer and the classical PD+ used in robot manipulators.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Stability, Control equipment, System dynamics, Degrees of freedom, Feedback, Manipulators, State estimation
Raphael P. Spada and Rodrigo Nicoletti
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036236
The Udwadia-Kalaba methodology is a possible way of explicitly obtaining the equations of motion of constrained systems. From these equations of motion, one can estimate the necessary forces in the constraint to keep the system in a given motion. Hence, the Udwadia-Kalaba methodology can also apply to active tracking control of sub-systems or the control of points of a structure. In this work, one investigates experimentally the benefits and drawbacks of such control strategy by applying it to the control of out-of-plane vibrations of a cantilever beam. The beam is excited by a shaker mounted near the clamped-end of the beam. A second shaker applies the control forces in the free-end of the beam, where an accelerometer is used for feedback. The vibration behavior of the beam under excitation/control is measured by a laser vibrometer. Results show that, the methodology changes the dynamic behavior of the structure by changing its boundary conditions at the point of control, thus shifting natural frequencies and mode shapes. Results also show that the successful implementation of the method experimentally is sensitive to the quality of modeling of the structure.
TOPICS: Cantilever beams, Kaolin, Trajectories (Physics), Equations of motion, Vibration, Boundary-value problems, Feedback, Tracking control, Laser Doppler vibrometers, Mode shapes, Excitation, Accelerometers, Modeling
Seyed Hamid Hashemipour, Nastaran Vasegh and Ali Khaki Sedigh
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036233
This paper investigates the problem of decentralized model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for a class of large scale systems with time varying delays in the interconnected terms and state and input delays. The upper bounds of interconnection terms with time-varying delays and external disturbances are assumed to be completely unknown. By integrators inclusion a dynamic input delay compensator is established for input delay compensation and it is used as a practical method for state calculation x(t+R). Also, a method is presented for a class of decentralized feedback controllers, which can evolve the closed-loop system error uniformly bounded stable. As a numerical example, the proposed technique is applied to an unstable open loop system to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.
TOPICS: Delays, Errors, Feedback, Open loop systems, Control equipment, Adaptive control, Closed loop systems
Baochen Qiang and Le Zhang
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036230
This paper presents a new switching anti-windup compensation design to maximize the domain of attraction for a supercavitating vehicle subject to actuator saturation. The dive-plane dynamics of the vehicle are considered. By applying the linear differential inclusion expression of saturated feedbacks, conditions under which the compensator locally stabilizes the closed-loop system are then derived. The design of anti-windup gains on maximizing the system's domain of attraction is finally formulated and solved as an iterative optimization problem with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. Simulations are conducted for systems with magnitude and rate limits to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
TOPICS: Actuators, Design, Vehicles, Closed loop systems, Linear matrix inequalities, Dynamics (Mechanics), Simulation, Engineering simulation, Optimization
Ivan L. Yeoh, Per G. Reinhall, Martin C. Berg, Howard J. Chizeck and Eric J. Seibel
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036231
A run-to-run optimization controller uses a reduced set of measurement parameters, in comparison to more general feedback controllers, to converge to the best control point for a repetitive process. A new run-to-run optimization controller is presented for the scanning fiber device used for image acquisition and display. This controller utilizes very sparse measurements to estimate a system energy measure and updates the input parameterizations iteratively within a feedforward with exact-inversion framework. Analysis, simulation and experimental investigations on the scanning fiber device demonstrate improved scan accuracy over previous methods and automatic controller adaptation to changing operating temperature. A specific application example and quantitative error analyses are provided of a scanning fiber endoscope that maintains high image quality continuously across a 20°C temperature rise without interruption of the 56 Hz video.
TOPICS: Optimization, Control equipment, Fibers, Temperature, Simulation, Endoscopes, Error analysis, Feedback, Feedforward control, Operating temperature
Huanhuan Li, Diyi Chen, Feifei Wang and Hao Zhang
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036234
In this paper, we pay attention to studying the switched model of the hydro-turbine governing system by introducing the concept of the switching of operational conditions. More specifically, utilizing the data of an existent hydropower station in China, we propose six nonlinear dynamic transfer coefficients of the hydro-turbine which can better describe the dynamic characteristics of the hydro-turbine governing system in the process of load rejection transient. Moreover, the elastic water hammer-impact of the penstock system and the nonlinearity of the generator for the process of load rejection transient are considered. Based on the combination of the different regulation modes of the governor and the corresponding running conditions of the hydroelectric generating unit, a novel nonlinear dynamic switched mathematical model of the hydro-turbine governing system is finally established. Meanwhile, the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the governing system are exhaustively investigated using numerical simulations. These methods and analytical results will supply some theory bases for running a hydropower station.
TOPICS: Transients (Dynamics), Dynamic analysis, Stress, Hydraulic turbines, Hydroelectric power stations, Computer simulation, Water, Hydropower, Governors, Hammers, China, Generators
Fahime Shiravani and Mohammad hossein Shafiei
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036235
This paper considers the problem of robust output regulation of nonlinear systems in semi strict-feedback form in the presence of model uncertainties and non-vanishing disturbances. In the proposed procedure, two exosystems are considered to generate the disturbance and reference signals. In order to reduce both the conservatism of the control law and also the chattering phenomena, a Disturbance Observer is designed for disturbance estimation instead of assuming the known upper bound for the disturbance. Moreover, a novel sliding surface is designed based on the tracking error to guarantee that the output of the system tracks the output of the exosystem. In this regard, some theorems are given and according to the Lyapunov approach, it is proved that the robust output regulation is guaranteed in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. Finally, in order to show the applicability of the proposed controller, it is applied to the Van der Pol chaotic oscillator. Computer simulations verify the theoretical results and also show the effective performance of the proposed controller.
TOPICS: Theorems (Mathematics), Control equipment, Computer simulation, Sliding mode control, Nonlinear systems, Errors, Feedback, Signals, Uncertainty
Behrooz Rahmani and Amin Moosaie
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036070
A method for distributed control of nonlinear flow equations is proposed. In this method, first, Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to substitute the nonlinear partial differential equations governing the system by a set of linear partial differential equations; such that their fuzzy composition exactly recovers the original nonlinear equations. This is done to alleviate the mode-interaction phenomenon occurring in spectral treatment of nonlinear equations. Then, each of the so-obtained linear equations is converted to a set of ordinary differential equations using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. Thus, the combination of T-S method and FFT technique leads to a number of ordinary differential equations for each grid point. For the stabilization of the dynamics of each grid point, the use is made of the parallel distributed compensation method. The stability of the proposed control method is proved using the second Lyapunov theorem for fuzzy systems. In order to solve the nonlinear flow equation, a combination of FFT and Runge-Kutta methodologies is implemented. Simulation studies show the performance of the proposed method, for example the smaller settling time and overshoot and also its relatively robustness with respect to the measurement noises.
TOPICS: Simulation, Navier-Stokes equations, Differential equations, Flow (Dynamics), Nonlinear equations, Partial differential equations, Robustness, Fuzzy logic, Theorems (Mathematics), Dynamics (Mechanics), Stability, Fast Fourier transforms, Noise (Sound)
Zheren Ma, Mohamed L. Shaltout and Dongmei Chen
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4036074
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) have been integrated with wind turbines to mitigate wind intermittence and make wind power dispatchable as traditional power sources. This paper presents a new power dispatch and control methodology that allows an integrated wind turbine and BESS to provide the grid with consistent and optimal power within a predetermined dispatch interval. First, the desired battery state of charge (SOC) under each wind speed is determined by applying an offline probabilistic algorithm to historical wind speed and power data. With this information, a one-step ahead model predictive optimization approach is explored for scheduling the integrated system power output for the next dispatch interval. Then, a real-time controller is developed to make the actual system power output match the scheduled target. A wind turbine active power controller is proposed to track the reference power set point determined by a steady state optimization approach. By combining an internal integral torque control and a gain-scheduled pitch control, the proposed active power controller can operate in a desired rotor speed region without an accurate knowledge of wind turbine operating parameters. Compared to the conventional scheduling approaches and real-time controller, implementing the new methodology significantly reduces the ramp rate, generator torque changing rate, battery charging rate and the power output deviation from the scheduled target. BESS with various capacities and different wind profiles are considered to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms on battery sizing.
TOPICS: Wind turbines, Batteries, Control equipment, Wind velocity, Algorithms, Optimization, Wind, Wind power, Integrated systems, Torque, Rotors, Generators, Steady state, Torque control, Energy storage

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