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Research Papers

Estimation of Road Adhesion Coefficient Based on Tire Aligning Torque Distribution

[+] Author and Article Information
Biao Ma

School of Engineering and Technology,
China University of Geosciences (Beijing),
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: biaomacugb@sina.cn

Chen Lv

The State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: C.Lyu@cranfield.ac.uk

Yahui Liu

The State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: liuyahui@tsinghua.edu.cn

Minghui Zheng

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: zhengmhbuaa@gmail.com

Yiyong Yang

School of Engineering and Technology,
China University of Geosciences (Beijing),
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: yangyy@cugb.edu.cn

Xuewu Ji

The State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: jixw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received April 28, 2017; final manuscript received September 8, 2017; published online December 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Shankar Coimbatore Subramanian.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(5), 051010 (Dec 19, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: DS-17-1226; doi: 10.1115/1.4038095 History: Received April 28, 2017; Revised September 08, 2017

Road adhesion coefficient is an important parameter in vehicle active safety control system. Many researchers estimate road adhesion coefficient by total tire self-aligning torque (SAT, also called front-axle aligning torque), which obtains the average road adhesion coefficient of front wheels, thus leading large estimation error. In this paper, a novel estimation of road adhesion coefficient based on single tire SAT, which is obtained by tire aligning torque distribution, is brought forward. Due to the use of SAT, the proposed estimation method is available in steering only condition. The main idea of the proposed method is that road adhesion coefficient is estimated by single tire SAT instead of total tire SAT. The single tire SAT is closer to real tire torque state, and it can be obtained by aligning torque distribution, which makes use of the ratio for the aligning torque of front-left wheel and front-right wheel. Tire sideslip angle used in torque distribution is estimated by unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Two coefficients, including front-left and front-right tire-road friction coefficients, are estimated by iteration algorithm form single tire SAT. The final road adhesion coefficient is determined by a coefficient identification rule, which is designed to determine which tire-road friction coefficient as the final road adhesion coefficient. Both simulations and tests that use gyroscope/lateral accelerometer/global position system (GPS)/strain gauge are conducted, to validate the proposed methodology that can provide accurate road adhesion coefficient to vehicle active safety control.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

The 2DOF vehicle model

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Fig. 2

The lateral force and SAT

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Fig. 1

The approaches for estimation of road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 4

Comparison between the Fiala tire model and the tire in our study: (a) lateral tire force calculated by Fiala model and tire force in our study, and (b) aligning torque calculated by the Fiala model and the tire aligning torque in our study

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Fig. 7

Road adhesion coefficient decision-making logic

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Fig. 8

Identification rule of road adhesion coefficient μ̂

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Fig. 12

Simulation results (speed = 90 km/h, t ≤ 3.5 s, μ = 0.9, t > 3.5 s, μ = 0.3): (a) steering wheel torque, steering angle and lateral acceleration, (b) tire sideslip angle, (c) tire self‐aligningtorque, (d) road adhesion coefficient, and (e) error of road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 6

Road adhesion estimation scheme

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Fig. 14

The vehicle test: (a) test vehicle equipped with DGPS and (b) vehicle course

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Fig. 13

Simulation results (speed = 90 km/h, t ≤ 3.5 s, μ = 0.3, t > 3.5 s, μ = 0.9): (a) steering wheel torque, steering angle and lateral acceleration, (b) tire sideslip angle, (c) tire self‐aligning torque, (d) road adhesion coefficient, and (e) error of road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 15

The measurement of single tire aligning torque

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Fig. 11

Simulation results (speed = 90 km/h, μ = 0.9): (a) steering wheel torque, steering angle and lateral acceleration, (b) tire sideslip angle, (c) tire self‐aligning torque, (d) road adhesion coefficient, and (e) error of road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 9

Simulation results (speed = 90 km/h, μ = 0.5): (a) steering wheel torque, steering angle and lateral acceleration, (b) tire sideslip angle, (c) tire self‐aligning torque, (d) road adhesion coefficient, and (e) error of road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 10

Simulation results (speed = 60 km/h, μ = 0.3): (a) steering wheel torque, steering angle and lateral acceleration, (b) tire sideslip angle, (c) tire self‐aligning torque, (d) road adhesion coefficient, and (e) error of road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 16

The strain gauge pasted on steering tierod

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Fig. 17

Pylon course slalom test results: (a) vehicle speed, (b) vehicle state, (c) tire sideslip angle, (d) tire self‐aligning torque, and (e) road adhesion coefficient

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Fig. 18

Double lane-change test results: (a) vehicle speed, (b) vehicle state, (c) tire sideslip angle, (d) tire self‐aligning torque, and (e) road adhesion coefficient

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