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Research Papers

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(azomethine)/ZnO Nanocomposite Toward Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue, Malachite Green, and Bismarck Brown

[+] Author and Article Information
S. J. Pradeeba

Department of Chemistry,
Hindusthan College of Engineering
and Technology,
Coimbatore 641032, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: pradheeba2017@gmail.com

K. Sampath

Department of Chemistry,
Kumaraguru College of Technology,
Coimbatore 641049, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: sampathchemistry@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 28, 2017; final manuscript received November 20, 2018; published online January 14, 2019. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 141(5), 051001 (Jan 14, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: DS-17-1635; doi: 10.1115/1.4042090 History: Received December 28, 2017; Revised November 20, 2018

This research was carried out based on the significance of protecting the environment by preventing the contamination of water caused from effluents discharge from dyeing industries, effective nanocomposite were prepared to solve this problem. The poly(azomethine), ZnO, and poly(azomethine)/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), scanning electron Microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Methylene blue (MB), Malachite green (MG), and Bismarck brown (BB) were degraded from water using poly(azomethine) (PAZ), zinc oxide (ZnO), PAZ/ZnO (PNZ) nanocomposites as photocatalyst in the presence of natural sunlight. The degradation efficiency and reaction kinetics were calculated, and the outcome of the photocatalytic experiments proved that the PAZ/ZnO nanocomposites reveals excellent photocatalytic activity and effective for decolorization of dye containing waste water than PAZ and ZnO in the presence of natural sunlight. The maximum degradation efficiency 97%, 96%, and 95% was obtained for PNZ nanocomposites at optimum dosage of catalyst as 500 mg and 50 ppm of MB, MG, and BB dye concentration, respectively. The maximum degradation time was 5 h. After photocatalytic study, the samples were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectroscopy.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme-1: synthesis of 4,4′-diformyl biphenyl

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Fig. 2

Scheme-2: synthesis of polyazomethine

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Fig. 3

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy characterization of PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ nanocomposite before (a) and after ((b) and (c)) removal of methylene blue, Bismarck brown, and malachite green

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Fig. 4

UV vis characterization of PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ nanocomposite before (a) and after ((b) and (c)) removal of methylene blue, Bismarck brown, and malachite green

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Fig. 5

X-ray diffraction of poly(azomethine)

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Fig. 6

X-ray diffraction of poly(azomethine)/ZnO

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Fig. 7

X-ray diffraction of ZnO

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Fig. 8

Scanning electron microscope of PAZ ((a) and (b)), PNZ nanocomposite ((c) and (d)), and ZnO ((e) and (f)), and EDAX of PNZ nanocomposite (g)

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Fig. 9

Transmission electron microscopy of PAZ ((a)–(c)), PNZ nanocomposite ((d)–(f)), and ZnO ((g)–(i))

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Fig. 10

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 100 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 11

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 200 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 12

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 300 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 13

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 400 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 14

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and (b) kinetics of MB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 500 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 15

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MG solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 100 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 16

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MG solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 200 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 17

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MG solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 300 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 18

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MG solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 400 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 19

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MG solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 500 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 20

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of BB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 100 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 21

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of BB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 200 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 22

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of BB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 300 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 23

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of BB solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 400 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 24

The result of degradation efficiency (a) and kinetics (b) of MG solution at normal sunlight irradiation using 500 mg catalyst (PAZ, ZnO, and PNZ) and 50 ppm dye concentration

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Fig. 25

Diagrammatical representation of photocatalytic reaction

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