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RESEARCH PAPERS

Impedance Control: An Approach to Manipulation: Part I—Theory

[+] Author and Article Information
Neville Hogan

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 107(1), 1-7 (Mar 01, 1985) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3140702 History: Received June 01, 1983; Online July 21, 2009

Abstract

Manipulation fundamentally requires the manipulator to be mechanically coupled to the object being manipulated; the manipulator may not be treated as an isolated system. This three-part paper presents an approach to the control of dynamic interaction between a manipulator and its environment. In Part I this approach is developed by considering the mechanics of interaction between physical systems. Control of position or force alone is inadequate; control of dynamic behavior is also required. It is shown that as manipulation is a fundamentally nonlinear problem, the distinction between impedance and admittance is essential, and given the environment contains inertial objects, the manipulator must be an impedance. A generalization of a Norton equivalent network is defined for a broad class of nonlinear manipulators which separates the control of motion from the control of impedance while preserving the superposition properties of the Norton network. It is shown that components of the manipulator impedance may be combined by superposition even when they are nonlinear.

Copyright © 1985 by ASME
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