Impedance Control: An Approach to Manipulation: Part III—Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Neville Hogan

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 107(1), 17-24 (Mar 01, 1985) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3140701 History: Received June 01, 1983; Online July 21, 2009


This three-part paper presents a unified approach to the control of a manipulator applicable to free motions, kinematically constrained motions, and dynamic interaction between the manipulator and its environment. In Part I the approach was developed from a consideration of the fundamental mechanics of manipulation. Part II presented techniques for implementing a desired manipulator impedance. In Part III a technique for choosing the impedance appropriate to a given application using optimization theory is presented. Based on a simplified analysis it is shown that if the task objective is to tradeoff interface forces and motion errors, the manipulator impedance should be proportional to the environmental admittance. An application of impedance control to unconstrained motion is presented. The superposition properties of nonlinear impedances are used to develop a real-time feedback control algorithm which permits a manipulator to avoid unpredictably moving objects without explicit path planning.

Copyright © 1985 by ASME
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