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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Performance of a Semi-Active Damper for Heavy Vehicles

[+] Author and Article Information
K. J. Kitching, D. Cebon

Cambridge University, Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, United Kingdom

D. J. Cole

Nottingham University, Mechanical Engineering Department, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 122(3), 498-506 (Jul 01, 1998) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286431 History: Received July 01, 1998
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Topics: Force , Dampers , Valves , Vehicles , Damping
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References

Guy, Y., Kerastas, M. W., and Bruckman, R. E., 1988, “A solenoid-actuated pilot valve in a semi-active damping system,” SAE 881139, pp. 1045–1056.
Ivers, D. E., and Miller, L. R., 1989, “Experimental Comparison of Passive, Semi-Active On/Off, and Semi-Active Continuous Suspension,” SAE SP-802, pp. 1–7.
Rajamani, R., and Hedrick, J. K., 1991, “Semi-active suspensions-a comparison between theory and experiments,” Proceedings 12th IAVSD on the Dynamics of Vehicles, Lyon, France, Swets and Zeitlinger.
de Koch, C., 1992, “Development of a new continuously variable damper for semi-active suspensions,” IMechE publication C389/471, pp. 141–151.
Petek, N. K., Romstadt, D. J., Lizell, M. B., and Weyenberg, T. R., 1995, “Demonstration of an automotive semi-active suspension using electrorheological fluid” SAE 950586, pp. 237–242.
Konik, D., et al., 1996, “Electronic damping control with continuously working damping valves (EDCC)-system description and functional requirements,” International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Aachen, Germany.
Majeed, K. N., 1996, “Delphi chassis real-time damping suspensions,” SAE TOPTEC workshop on Advanced Suspensions, April 22–23, Detroit, MI.
Petek, N. K., 1992, “An electronically controlled shock absorber using electrorheological fluid,” SAE 920275, pp. 67–72.
Karnopp,  D., 1989, “Permanent magnet linear motors used as variable mechanical dampers for vehicle suspension,” Vehicle System Dynamics, 18, pp. 187–200.
Miller, L. R., and Nobles, C. M., 1988, “The Design and Development of a Semi-Active Suspension for a Military Tank,” SAE Trans. No. 881133, pp. 5347–5355.
Nell,  S., and Steyn,  J. L., 1994, “Experimental evaluation of an unsophisticated two state semi-active damper,” J. Terramech., 31, No. 4, pp. 227–238.
Besinger, F. H., 1992, “The performance of passive and semi-active suspensions for lorries,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University Engineering Department.
Besinger,  F. H., Cebon,  D., and Cole,  D. J., 1995, “Force control of a semi-active damper,” Vehicle System Dynamics, 24, pp. 695–723.
Cebon,  D., Besinger,  F. H., and Cole,  D. J., 1996, “Control strategies for semi-active lorry suspensions,” I. Auto. Eng. IMech E., 210 No. D2, pp. 161–178.
Bode, O. et al., 1996, “Impact of different tyres and adaptive suspension control on vertical dynamics of commercial vehicles,” International symposium on advanced vehicle control, 6-23-1997, Aachen, Germany.
Vaughan,  N. D., and Gamble,  J. B., 1996, “The modelling and simulation of a proportional solenoid valve,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 118, pp. 120–125.
Anon, 1996, “Compression, bulk modulus and related properties” Shell UK Ltd.
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Kitching, K. J., 1997, “Semi-active damping of heavy vehicles,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University.
Merritt, H. E., 1967, Hydraulic control systems, Wiley, New York.
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Robson,  J. D., 1979, “Road surface description and vehicle response,” Int. J. Vehicle Design, 1, No. 1, pp. 25–35.

Figures

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Hydraulic circuit of the semi-active damper
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Cross-section view of the semi-active damper (reservoir, filter and check valve Cv1 not shown)
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Simplified feedback control of the damper valve
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Schematic of the damper model
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Closed-loop valve spool time responses: damper velocity constant at 150 mm/s
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Influence of oil flow forces upon valve position control: closed-loop valve control with a 6 Hz sinusoidal damper velocity
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10 kN transient response: damper velocity constant at 150 mm/s
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Two DOF heavy vehicle model used in the HiL simulations
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MSD operating envelope of the semi-active suspension for a minor road, measured on the HiL rig
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Comparison between the passive and semi-active suspensions for a principal road, measured with the HiL rig
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Force and valve tracking performance for a principal road [S2msd20:Cm=44 kNs/m]
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PSDs of the passive P2opt20 and the semi-active S2msd20 suspensions for a principal road input
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10 mm bump response with a vehicle speed of 14 m/s
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Power distribution characteristics of the prototype semi-active damper for the bump road profile

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