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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Detecting and Correcting Cylinder Imbalance in Direct Injection Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
M. J. van Nieuwstadt, I. V. Kolmanovsky

Ford Motor Company, SRL MD 2036, 2101 Village Road, PO Box 2053, Dearborn, MI 48124-2053

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 123(3), 413-424 (Jul 06, 2000) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1386647 History: Revised July 06, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Lee, D., and Rizzoni, G., 1995, “Detection of Partial Misfire in IC Engines Using a Measurement of Crankshaft Angular Velocity,” SAE paper 951070.
Azzoni, P. M., Minelli, G., Moro, D., Flora, R., and Serra, G., 1999, “Indicated and Load Torque Estimation using Crankshaft Angular Velocity Measurement,” SAE paper 1999_01_0543.
Azzoni, P. M., Moro, D., and Ponti, F., 1998, “Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control,” SAE paper 980795.
Citron, S. J., O’Higgins, J. E., and Chen L. Y., 1989, “Cylinder by cylinder Engine Pressure and Pressure Torque Waveform Determination Utilizing Speed Fluctuations,” SAE paper 890486.
Connolly,  F. T., and Rizzoni,  G., 1994, “Real Time Estimation of Engine Torque for the Detection of Engine Misfires,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 116, pp. 675–686.
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Iida, K., Akishino, K., and Kido K., 1990, “IMEP Estimation from Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque Variation,” SAE paper 900617.
Ball, J. K., Bowe, M. J., Stone, C. R., and McFadden, P. D., 2000, “Torque Estimation and Misfire Detection using Block Angular Acceleration,” SAE paper 2000_01_0560.
Drakunov, S., Rizzoni, G., and Wang, Y-Y., 1995, “On-Line Estimation of Indicated Torque in IC Engines using Nonlinear Observers,” SAE paper 950840.
Kolmanovsky, I. V., Moraal, P. E., Van Nieuwstadt, M. J., and Stefanopoulou, A., 1997, “Issues in Modelling and Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines,” System Modelling and Optimization: Proceedings of the 18th IFIP Conference on System Modelling and Optimization.
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Jensen, J.-P., Kristensen, A. F., Sorenson, S. C., Houbak, N., and Hendricks, E., 1991, “Mean Value Modeling of a Small Turbocharged Diesel Engine,” SAE paper 910070.
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Müller, M., 1997, “Mean Value Modeling of Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines,” Master’s thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Engineering.
Van Nieuwstadt, M. J., Moraal, P. E., Kolmanovsky, I. V., Stefanopoulou, A., Wood, P., and Criddle, M., 1998, “A Comparison of SISO and MIMO Designs for EGR-VGT Control of a High Speed Diesel Engine,” IFAC Workshop on Advances in Automotive Control, Mohican State Park, Ohio, USA.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Graphical interpretation of the parameters in the QE fit
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Heat release QE fit for heat release curve with round diffusion burning. Measured: solid, fit: dash-dot.
Grahic Jump Location
Cylinder pressure QE fit for heat release curve with round diffusion burning. Measured: solid, fit: dash-dot.
Grahic Jump Location
Cylinder balancing from crankshaft measurements. Fuel correction [mg/str] (top), and imbalance measure (bottom) for a +20 percent offset in injector 4 (-.). The controller is switched on at the vertical line. The top window shows the 4 fuel corrections [mg/str], the bottom window shows the resulting passage times between teeth.
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Cylinder balancing from crankshaft measurements. Brake torque (top) and engine speed (bottom) for a +20 percent offset in injector 4 (-.). The controller is switched on at the vertical line. The top window shows the brake torque [Nm], the bottom window shows the resulting engine speed.
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Torque (top) and RPM (bottom) trace over one engine cycle with location of optimal detection window indicated by the square wave. N1=110,N2=170 degrees.
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Sweep of detection index α over the window beginning N1, with fixed N2=170 degrees after TDC
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Block diagram for integrating control
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Cylinder balancing on the 1.2 liter DIATA engine. Shown are the event resolved crank shaft accelerations, each trace corresponding to one cylinder. Balancing is switched on at the vertical line.
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Cylinder balancing from cylinder pressure. The controller is switched on at the vertical line. The fourth injector (-.) is biased by +20 percent. The top window shows the four fuel corrections [mg/str], the bottom window shows the resulting cycle-averaged torque for each cylinder [Nm].
Grahic Jump Location
Detection index of cylinder balancing with cylinder pressure as a function of sampling rate for different engine speeds
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Cylinder balancing from the exhaust manifold pressure. The controller is switched on at the vertical line. The fourth injector (-.) is biased by +20 percent. The top window shows the 4 fuel corrections [mg/str], the bottom window shows the window-averaged pressures.
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Cylinder balancing from exhaust manifold pressure. The controller is switched on at the vertical line.
Grahic Jump Location
Generic adaptive scheme for cylinder balancing
Grahic Jump Location
Adaptive cylinder balancing based on crank accelerations. The controller is switched on at the vertical line. The fourth injector (-.) is biased by +20 percent. The top window shows the 4 fuel corrections [mg/str], the bottom window shows the resulting cycle-averaged torque for each cylinder [Nm].

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