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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Robust Control of Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. M. Zhang, Liguo E

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Robotics and Manufacturing Systems

B. L. Walcott

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 124(2), 281-289 (May 10, 2002) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1470173 History: Received April 27, 1998; Online May 10, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Welding Handbook. 8th edition, Vol. 2: Welding Processes, AWS, 1991.
Kim,  Y. S., and Eagar,  T. W., 1993, “Analysis of metal transfer in gas metal arc welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 72(6), pp. 269-s to 278-s.
Essers,  W. G., and Van Gompel,  M. R. M., 1984, “Arc control with pulsed GMA welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 63(6), pp. 26–32.
Ueguri,  S., Hara,  K., and Komura,  H., 1985, “Study of metal transfer in pulsed GMA welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 64(8), pp. 242-s to 250-s.
Kim, Y. S., 1989, Metal Transfer in Gas Metal Arc Welding, Ph.D thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Wang, Q. L., Li, P. J., Zhang, L., et al., 1997, “A new close-loop droplet transfer control system in pulsed GMAW,” Weld. J. (Miami).
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Amin,  M., 1983, “Pulse current parameters for arc stability and controlled metal transfer in arc welding,” Met. Constr., 15, pp. 272–278.
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Zhang,  Y. M., Liguo,  E., and Kovacevic,  R., 1998, “Active metal transfer control by monitoring excited droplet oscillation,” Weld. J. (Miami), 77(9), pp. 388-s to 395-s.
Zhang, Y. M., Liguo E., and Kovacevic, R., “Method of gas metal arc welding,” allowed for U.S. Patent, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
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Waszink,  J. H., and Van Den Heuvel,  G. P. M., 1982, “Heat generation and heat flow in the filler metal in GMA welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 61(8), pp. 269-s to 282-s.
Smith,  O. J. M., 1957, “Closer control of loops with deadtime,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 53, pp. 217–219.
Clarke,  D. W., Mohtadi,  C., and Tuffs,  P. S., 1987, “Generalized predictive control,” Automatica, 23, pp. 137–160.
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Figures

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Waveform of welding current
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Intervals of parameters in the dynamic model
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Flow chart of control algorithm
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Metal transfer monitoring system
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Wire feed speed change experiment 1. (a) Closed-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The wire feed speed is changed from 106 in/min to 146 in/min at discrete time 400. The transfer frequency is 33 Hz.
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Wire feed speed change experiment 2. (a) Closed-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The wire feed speed is changed from 140 in/min to 160 in/min at discrete time 400. The transfer frequency is 44 Hz.
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Wire feed speed change experiment 3. (a) Close-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The wire feed speed is changed from 160 in/min to 185 in/min at discrete time 400. The transfer frequency is 56 Hz.
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Wire feed speed change experiment 4. (a) Closed-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The wire feed speed is changed from 175 in/min to 200 in/min at discrete time 400. The transfer frequency is 80 Hz.
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Metal transfer process under wire speed change: conventional system. (a) Metal transfer before wire speed change. (b) Metal transfer after wire speed change.
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Metal transfer process under wire speed change: developed system. (a) Metal transfer before wire speed change. (b) Metal transfer after wire speed change.
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Contact tube-to-work distance disturbance experiment 1. (a) Closed-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The transfer frequency is 33 Hz. The wire feed speed is 115 in/min for both the closed-loop and open-loop experiments.
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Contact tube-to-work distance disturbance experiment 2. (a) Closed-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The transfer frequency is 44 Hz. The wire feed speed is 140 in/min for both the closed-loop and open-loop experiments.
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Contact tube-to-work distance disturbance experiment 1. (a) Closed-loop control. (b) Open-loop experiment. The transfer frequency is 80 Hz. The wire feed speed is 180 in/min for both the closed-loop and open-loop experiments.
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Controlled metal transfer under different contact tube-to-work distances. The desired ODPP can be achieved despite the difference in the contact tube-to-work distance used. (a) Contact tube-to-work distance 0.5 in. (b) Contact tube-to-work distance 0.9 in.

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