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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Load Haul Dump Vehicle Kinematics and Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter Ridley

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, PO Box 2434, Brisbane, 4001 Australiae-mail: p.ridley@qut.edu.au

Peter Corke

CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology, Queensland Center for Advanced Technologies, PO Box 883, Kenmore 4069, Australiae-mail: pic@cat.csiro.au

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 125(1), 54-59 (Mar 10, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1541671 History: Received May 01, 2000; Revised August 01, 2002; Online March 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Cunningham, J., Corke, P., Durrant-Whyte, H., and Dalziel, M., 1999, “Automated LHD’s and Underground Haulage Trucks,” Australian Journal of Mining, pp. 51–53.
DeSantis,  R., 1997, “Modeling and Path Tracking for a Load-Haul-Dump Mining Vehicle,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 119(1), pp. 40–47.
Hemami,  A., and Polotski,  V., 1998, “Path Tracking Control Problem Formulation of an LHD Loader,” Int. J. Robot. Res., 17(2), pp. 193–199.
Altafini,  C., 1999, “A Path-Tracking Criterion for an LHD Articulated Vehicle,” Int. J. Robot. Res., 18(5), pp. 435–441.
Altafini, C, 1999, “Why Use an Articulated Vehicle in Mining Operations,” Proc. of 1999 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Detroit, MI, May 1999, pp. 3020–3025.
Scheding, S., Dissanayake, G., Nebot, E., and Durrant-Whyte, H., 1999, “Slip Modelling and Aided Inertial Navigation of an LHD,” Proc. 1997 IEEE Conf. on Robotics and Automation, April 1997, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 1904–1909.
Steele,  J., Ganesh,  C., and Kleve,  A., 1999, “Control and Scale Model Simulation of Sensor-Guided LHD Mining Machines,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 29(6), pp. 1232–1239.
Corke,  P., and Ridley,  P., 2001, “Steering Kinematics for a Center-Articulated Mobile Robot,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 17(2), pp. 215–218.
Ishimoto, H., Tsubouchi, T., Sarata, S. and Yuta, S., 1997, “A Practical Trajectory Following of an Articulated Steering Type Vehicle,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Field and Service Robotics, Dec. 1997, Canberra, pp. 412–419.
Andersson, U., Mrozek, K., Hyyppa, K., and Astrom K., 1997, “Path Design and Control Algorithms for Articulated Mobile Robots,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Field and Service Robotics, Dec. 1997, Canberra, pp. 405–411.
Scheding, S. Nebot, E., Stevens, M., Roberts, J., Corke, P., Cunningham, J., and Cook, B., 1997, “Experiments in Autonomous Underground Guidance,” Proc of 1997 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, April 1997, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 1898–1903.
Wilson,  J., 2000, “Guidance of Agricultural Vehicles,” Comput. Electron. in Agriculture, 25(1-2), pp. 3–9.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Geometric layout of LHD vehicle, showing the instantaneous center (I1) of velocity of front and rear of the vehicle and the center (c) of curvature of point p
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Plan-view of LHD vehicle, defining the displacement, heading and curvature errors (εdθ, and εc) relative to the circle through points P1,P2, and P3 on a desired path
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Geometric relationship between path errors (εdθ, and εc) between two infinitesimally separated positions of the vehicle
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State variable feedback control strategy block diagram
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Locus of roots of the system characteristic equation as vehicle speed varies between zero and 15 m/s for constant feedback gains k=[0.0344,0.3536,1.6994]
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Variation of feedback gain required to maintain constant pole placement, ωn=0.3 rad/s and ξ=0.7, as vehicle speed varies (l1=1.6,l2=1.8,R=10 m,)
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System block diagram showing the entry of path disturbance inputs c(t), h(t), and d(t)
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Path of an LHD vehicle as it locks onto a prescribed circle (R=10 m), from an initial position whose location errors are εd=1.0 m,εθ=0.1 rad, and εc=0.0111 m−1. The vehicle speed is constant V=2.0 m/s, and tuned (k=[0.0344,0.3536,1.6994]) for pole placement ωn=0.3 rad/s and ξ=0.7,(l1=1.6,l2=1.8)
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Error time responses for the journey described in Fig. 8
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Steering time responses for the journey described in Fig. 8

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