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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Simple Virtual Sensor for Combustion Timing

[+] Author and Article Information
U. Holmberg

M. Hellring

Halmstad University, Box 823, S-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 125(3), 462-467 (Sep 18, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1589034 History: Received March 12, 2002; Revised November 11, 2002; Online September 18, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Glaser, I., and Powell, J. D., 1981, “Optimal closed-loop spark control of an automotive engine,” Technical paper 810058, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
Hubbard, M., Dobson, P. D., and Powell, J. D., 1976. “Closed loop control of spark advance using a cylinder pressure sensor,” Trans. ASME: J. Dyn Syst., Meas., Control, December, pages 414–420.
Powell, J. D., 1993, “Engine control using cylinder pressure: Past, present, and future,” Trans. ASME: J. Dyn Syst., Meas., Control, 115 , 343–350.
Gillbrand, P., Johansson, H., and Nytomt, J., 1987, “Method and apparatus for detecting ion current in an internal combustion engine ignition system,” U.S. Patent No. 4,648,367.
Eriksson, L., Nielssen, L., and Glavenius, M., 1997, “Closed loop ignition control by ionization current interpretation,” Technical paper 970854, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
Hellring, M., Munther, T., Rögnvaldsson, T., Wickström, N., Carlsson, C., Larsson, M., and Nytomt, J., 1999, “Spark advance control using the ion current and neural soft sensors,” Technical paper 1999-01-1162, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
Hellring, M., Rögnvaldsson, T., Wickström, N., and Larsson, M., 2000, “Ion current based pressure peak detection under different air humidity conditions,” in Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2000, pages 125–138.
Hellring, M., and Holmberg, U., 2000, “An ion current based peak-finding algorithm for pressure peak position estimation,” in SAE International Fall Fuel & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition, Baltimore, Maryland USA. 2000-01-2829.
Hellring, M., and Holmberg, U., 2001,“A comparison of ion current based algorithms for peak pressure position control,” in SAE International Fall Fuel & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition, Orlando, Florida USA. 2001-01-1920.
Saitzkoff, A., Reinmann, R., Berglind, T., and Glavmo, M., 1996, “An ionization equilibrium analysis of the spark plug as an ionization sensor,” Technical paper 960337, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Normalized work as a function of PPP for different engine loads; Wk,k=1,2,3 corresponds to 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45% of maximal load
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Averaged ion current (solid) and pressure (dashed) using 100 consecutive cycles in a laboratory environment under constant external conditions (1500 RPM and 70% of maximal load)
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Single cycle ion current (solid) and pressure (dashed) sampled on board the SAAB car while driving on the highway. The engine speed was 1500 RPM and the load was approximately 25% of maximum. Notice that there are several peaks in the flame front phase while the post flame phase is hardly visible.
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Performance of different virtual PPP sensors for varying PPP settings. All signals are low pass filtered for clarity. a) PPP sensor (solid), MLP estimate (dotted), SQUAD estimate (dashed), DD estimate (dashed–dotted). b) MLP estimate vs PPP sensor, c) SQUAD estimate vs PPP sensor, d) DD estimate vs PPP sensor.
Grahic Jump Location
Closed-loop virtual sensor control. Nine batches of 800 consecutive combustion cycles are concatenated to show performance during real-time control. a) Low pass filtered PPP (thick: Sensor, thin: Virtual sensor) and IGN (ignition crank angle). The setpoint for the virtual sensor PPP was 15 CAD ATDC. b) MAP (Manifold air pressure): approximately proportional to load. c) Motor speed (RPM). A small village was passed in the middle, showing breaking, change of gear (4), acceleration, change of gear (5) and speed control.

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