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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Self-Energized Sensor for Wireless Injection Mold Cavity Pressure Measurement: Design and Evaluation

[+] Author and Article Information
Li Zhang, Charles B. Theurer, Robert X. Gao

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003

David O. Kazmer

Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 126(2), 309-318 (Aug 05, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1767850 History: Received July 03, 2003; Revised November 16, 2003; Online August 05, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Rawabdeh,  I. A., and Petersen,  P. F., 1999, “In-Line Monitoring of Injection Molding Operations: A Literature Review,” J. Injection Molding Technol., 3, pp. 47–53.
Watkins,  B., 1997, “Five Myths About Sensing Mold Pressure,” Sensors Magazine,14, pp. 73–78.
Collins,  C., 1999, “Monitoring Cavity Pressure Perfects Injection Molding,” Assembly Automation,19(3), pp. 197–202.
Langkamp,  U., 1996, “Pressure and Temperature Sensors,” Kunststoffe Plast Europe,86(12), pp. 1804–1812.
Weller,  S., 2000, “Inner Pressure Measurement During Injection Moulding,” Kunststoffe Plast Europe,90(5), pp. 20–21.
Huang,  J., and Cheng,  S., 2002, “Study of Injection Molding Pressure Sensor With Low Cost and Small Probe,” Sens. Actuators, A, 101(3), pp. 269–274.
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Ristic, V. M., 1983, Principles of Acoustic Devices, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Rafizadeh, M., Kamal, M. R., and Patterson W. I., 1997, “Physically-Based Adaptive Control of Cavity Pressure in Injection Molding: Filling Phase,” Proceedings of ANTEC, 1 , pp. 582–587.
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Figures

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Wireless vs. wired mold cavity pressure sensor
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Functional decomposition of the self-energized pressure sensor
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Digitization of the mold cavity pressure through ultrasonic pulses
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A piezoceramic ring as the basic element for the energy converter
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Converted electrical energy as a function of parallel capacitance for a stack of 10 rings
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Voltage-current curve for an ideal threshold modulator
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Threshold modulator based on a relaxation oscillator
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Illustration of the pressure discretization using a threshold modulator
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Physical configuration of the signal transmitter
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Model of a transmitter-receiver pair with mold steel as the transmission medium
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Equivalent circuit model of the ultrasonic transmitter coupled to the mold steel
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An example of transfer function associated with a signal transmitter
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Natural frequency shift as a function of the front layer and bonding layer thickness
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Cross-sectional view of prototype energy converter
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A comparison of the predicted voltage (based on the model and the commercial pressure sensor) and the actual voltage of the prototype
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Electric circuit model of the threshold modulator connected to the energy converter and signal transmitter
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Transient (startup) experimental and simulation results for the threshold modulator
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Measured and simulated ultrasonic pulses in (a) time domain and (b) frequency domain
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Cross-sectional view of the prototype sensor
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Setup for the experiment of pressure sensor assembly
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Experiment results showing (a) electrical pulses and ultrasonic pulses, and (b) actual pressure and reconstructed pressure

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