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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Based on Wave Variable With Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Ho Ching, Wayne J. Book

 Intelligent Machine Dynamics Laboratory, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 128(1), 86-93 (Sep 28, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2168161 History: Received April 01, 2005; Revised September 28, 2005

In a conventional bilateral teleoperation, transmission delay over the Internet can potentially cause instability. A wave variable algorithm guarantees teleoperation stability under varying transmission delay at the cost of poor transient performance. Adding a predictor on the master side can reduce this undesirable side effect, but that would require a slave model. An inaccurate slave model used in the predictor as well as variations in transmission delay, both of which are likely under realistic situations, can result in steady-state errors. A direct drift control algorithm is used to drive this error to zero, regardless of the source of the error. A semi-adaptive predictor that can distinguish between free space and a rigid contact environment is used to provide a more accurate force feedback on the master side. A full adaptive predictor is also used that estimates the environmental force using recursive least squares with a forgetting factor. This research presents the experimental results and evaluations of the previously mentioned wave-variable-based methods under a realistic operation environment using a real master and slave. The algorithm proposed is innovative in that it takes advantage of the strengths of several control methods to build a promising bilateral teleoperation setup that can function under varying transmission delay, modeling error, and changing environment. Success could lead to practical applications in various fields, such as space-based remote control, and telesurgery.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Block diagram of conventional bilateral teleoperation

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Figure 2

Bilateral teleoperation with basic wave transform

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Figure 3

Bilateral teleoperation with wave variables and predictor

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Figure 4

Bilateral teleoperation in wave variable with predictor and direct drift

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Figure 5

Phantom 1.0 (left) and Phantom 1.5 (right)

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Figure 6

Master and slave positions and forces with wave transform only

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Figure 7

Master and slave positions and forces in wave transform predictor without drift control

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Figure 8

Master and slave positions and forces in wave transform predictor with drift control in free space

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Figure 9

Master and slave positions and forces in wave transform and semi-adaptive predictor with drift control under contact

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Figure 10

Master and slave positions and forces in wave transform and adaptive predictor with drift control under contact

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Figure 11

Master and slave positions and forces in wave transform and adaptive predictor with drift control with payload

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