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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Experimental Characterization and Gray-Box Modeling of Spool-Type Automotive Variable-Force-Solenoid Valves With Circular Flow Ports and Notches

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Cao1

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802caom@utrc.utc.com

K. W. Wang

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802kwwang@psu.edu

L. DeVries2

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

Y. Fujii, W. E. Tobler, G. M. Pietron

 Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121

1

Presently, Senior Research Engineer/Scientist, United Technologies Research Center, MS 129-73, East Hartford, CT 06108.

2

Presently, Technical Specialist, General Moters, 11 Carriage St., Honeoye Falls, NY 14472.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 128(3), 636-654 (Sep 03, 2005) (19 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2232687 History: Received August 10, 2004; Revised September 03, 2005

In automatic transmission design, electronic control techniques have been adopted through proportional variable-force-solenoid valves, which typically consist of spool-type valves (Christenson, W. A., 2000, SAE Technical Paper Series, 2000-01-0116). This paper presents an experimental investigation and neural network modeling of the fluid force and flow rate for a spool-type hydraulic valve with symmetrically distributed circular ports. Through extensive data analysis, general trends of fluid force and flow rate are derived as functions of pressure drop and valve opening. To further reveal the insights of the spool valve fluid field, equivalent jet angle and discharge coefficient are calculated from the measurements, based on the lumped parameter models. By incorporating physical knowledge with nondimensional artificial neural networks (NDANN), gray-box NDANN-based hydraulic valve system models are also developed through the use of equivalent jet angle and discharge coefficient. The gray-box NDANN models calculate fluid force and flow rate as well as the intermediate variables with useful design implications. The network training and testing demonstrate that the gray-box NDANN fluid field estimators can accurately capture the relationship between the key geometry parameters and discharge coefficient/jet angle. The gray-box NDANN maintains the nondimensional network configuration, and thus possesses good scalability with respect to the geometry parameters and key operating conditions. All of these features make the gray-box NDANN fluid field estimator a valuable tool for hydraulic system design.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Hydraulic valve test stand schematic (18)

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Figure 2

(a) and (b) Testing samples of valve spool and sleeve

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Figure 4

Valve opening indexes of the notched ports

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Figure 5

(a) and (b) Sticking compensation: Inlet-regulated flow

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Figure 6

Leakage measurements

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Figure 8

(a)–(c) Valve comparison: Fluid force versus pressure drop

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Figure 9

(a)–(c) Valve comparison: Flow rate versus pressure drop

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Figure 10

(a) and (b) Valve comparison: Flow rate versus valve opening, p=80psi

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Figure 11

(a) and (b) Valve comparison: Flow rate versus valve opening, p=160psi

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Figure 12

(a) and (b) Valve comparison: Fluid force versus valve opening, p=80psi

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Figure 13

(a) and (b) Valve comparison: Fluid force versus valve opening, p=160psi

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Figure 14

(a) and (b) Individual valve study: Fluid force/flow rate versus pressure drop with different valve openings, 1−xv=3.5mm, 2−xv=2.0mm, 3−xv=1.0mm, 4−xv=0.5mm, 5−xv=0.25mm, 6−xv=0.1mm, 7−xv=0.0mm, 8−xv=−0.1mm, 9−xv=−0.25mm, 10−xv=−0.40mm, 11−xv=−0.50mm

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Figure 15

(a) and (b) Back calculated discharge coefficient and jet angle—small notch, outlet-regulated flow, 1−xv=3.5mm, 2−xv=3.0mm, 3−xv=2.5mm, 4−xv=2.0mm, 5−xv=1.5mm, 6−xv=1.0mm, 7−xv=0.5mm, 8−xv=−0.25mm, 9−xv=0.1mm

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Figure 21

(a)–(d) Gray-box NDANN training—standard valve, circles–NDANN prediction stars—measurements, xv=3.5, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.10 mm

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Figure 22

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN training—small notch, outlet-regulated flow, circles–NDANN prediction stars—measurements, xv=3.5, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.10 mm

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Figure 23

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN training—small notch, inlet—regulated flow, circles–NDANN prediction stars—measurements, xv=3.5, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.10 mm

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Figure 24

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN testing—large notch, inlet—regulated flow, circles–NDANN prediction stars—measurements, xv=3.0, 2.5, 0.1 mm

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Figure 25

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN performance—general trends of discharge coefficient and jet angle, Small notch, inlet-regulated flow

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Figure 26

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN performance—flow rate versus orifice port opening, circles—standard valve, squares—port with small notch, diamonds—port with large notch

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Figure 27

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN performance—fluid force versus orifice port opening, circles—standard valve, squares—port with small notch, diamonds—port with large notch

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Figure 28

Area calculation of the notched ports

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Figure 16

(a) and (b) Individual valve study: Fluid force/flow rate versus pressure drop with different valve openings—small notch, inlet—regulated flow, 1−xv=3.5mm, 2−xv=2.5mm, 3−xv=2.0mm, 4−xv=1.5mm, 5−xv=1.0mm, 6−xv=0.5mm, 7−xv=0.25mm, 8−xv=0.0mm, 9−xv=−0.1mm, 10−xv=−0.25mm, 11−xv=−0.40mm

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Figure 17

(a) and (b) Back calculated discharge coefficient and jet angle—small notch, inlet-regulated flow, 1−xv=3.5mm, 2−xv=3.0mm, 3−xv=2.5mm, 4−xv=2.0mm, 5−xv=1.5mm, 6−xv=1.0mm, 7−xv=0.5mm, 8−xv=0.25mm, 9−xv=0.1mm

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Figure 18

(a) and (b) Gray-box NDANN valve model: Overall approach

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Figure 19

Neural network grow-and-trim algorithm (one iteration) (5)

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Figure 20

(a) and (b) Final gray-box NDANN configurations after grow and trim

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