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Research Papers

Simulation of Edge Cracks Using Pulsed Eddy Current Stimulated Thermography

[+] Author and Article Information
Suixian Yang

School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Chinayangsuixian@scu.edu.cn

Gui Yun Tian

School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, UKg.y.tian@ncl.ac.uk

Ilham Zainal Abidin

School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, UKi.m.zainal-abidin@ncl.ac.uk

John Wilson

School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, UKjohn.wilson2@ncl.ac.uk

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 133(1), 011008 (Nov 30, 2010) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002710 History: Received November 28, 2009; Revised July 18, 2010; Published November 30, 2010; Online November 30, 2010

Thermography has proven to be one of the most effective approaches to detect cracks in conductive specimens over a relatively large area. Pulsed eddy current stimulated thermography is an emerging integrative nondestructive approach for the detection and characterization of surface and subsurface cracks. In this paper, heating behaviors of edge cracks, excited by pulsed eddy currents, are examined using numerical simulations. The simulations are performed using COMSOL multiphysics finite element method simulation software using the AC/DC module. The simulation results show that in the early heating stage, the temperature increases more quickly at the crack tip compared with other points on the sample. The results indicate that to maximize sensitivity, the response should be analyzed in the early stages of the heating period, no more than 100 ms for samples in which we are interested. The eddy current density distribution is changed with a variation in inductor orientation, but the crack tips remain the “hottest” points during the excitation period, which can be used for robust quantitative defect evaluation. Signal feature selection, transient temperature profile of the sample, and influence of the inductor orientation on the detection sensitivity for edge cracks are investigated. The work shows that positioning of the inductor, perpendicular to the crack line, results in the highest sensitivity for defect detection and characterization. The crack orientation can be estimated through the rotation of the linear inductor near the sample edge and the crack tips.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Sample used in simulation

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Figure 2

Temperature distribution images at 50 ms (crack depth=3 mm)

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Figure 3

(a) Temperature quantification positions and (b) schematic of eddy current behavior of edge cracks

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Figure 4

Temperature ratio versus time: (a) top view, (b) side view, and (c) normalized average ΔT ratio per 1 mm increase in crack depth

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Figure 5

Temperature history at the crack tip: (a) top view and (b) side view

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Figure 6

Temperature history of heating and cooling periods (crack depth=3 mm)

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Figure 7

Parabola and exponential constants change with crack depth: (a) rising part (heating period) and (b) falling part (cooling period)

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Figure 8

Inductor orientation

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Figure 9

Temperature rise at the tip of crack varies with inductor orientation

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