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Research Papers

The Electromechanical Low-Power Active Suspension: Modeling, Control, and Prototype Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
Willem-Jan Evers1

Dynamics and Control Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB, The Netherlandswjeevers@gmail.com

Arjan Teerhuis

Integrated Safety, TNO Automotive, Helmond 5700 AT, The Netherlandsarjan.teerhuis@tno.nl

Albert van der Knaap

Integrated Safety, TNO Automotive, Helmond 5700 AT, The Netherlands

Igo Besselink

Dynamics and Control Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB, The Netherlandsi.j.m.besselink@tue.nl

Henk Nijmeijer

Dynamics and Control Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB, The Netherlandsh.nijmeijer@tue.nl

1

Corresponding author.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 133(4), 041008 (Apr 11, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003278 History: Received January 08, 2010; Revised September 23, 2010; Published April 11, 2011; Online April 11, 2011

The high energy consumption of market-ready active suspension systems is the limiting factor in the competition with semi-active devices. The variable geometry active suspension is an alternative with a significantly lower power consumption. However, previous designs suffer from packaging problems, nonlinear stiffness characteristics, and failsafe issues. This paper discusses the feasibility of a recently presented, new design, variable geometry actuator, which has a fixed spring and constant stiffness. An actuator model is derived that includes the electric motor and friction characteristics. Using this model, a cascaded controller is developed and the steady-state and dynamic properties are evaluated. The simulation results are validated with prototype tests. The results show a good correspondence between simulations and measurements. Furthermore, a 10 Hz bandwidth can be easily obtained. It is concluded that the electromechanical low-power active suspension design is feasible and that the model gives a fairly accurate representation of both the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the prototype.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 2

Variable geometry actuator, eLPAS design

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Figure 3

Electrical scheme of a dc drive

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Figure 4

Actuator working range (under the solid line). Constraints for α=0 and Mfricmax=0 (dashed) and third constraint for Mfricmax=0.9 N m, α=15 deg (dotted).

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Figure 5

Block-scheme of the motor control loop

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Figure 6

Block-scheme of the angle control loop

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Figure 7

Actuator worst-case power consumption. Mean (right) and maximum (left) power consumptions for α=0, when tracking sines of varying frequency and maximum amplitude A. Simulations with friction (black) and without friction (gray).

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Figure 8

Actuator worst-case power consumption. Mean (right) and maximum (left) power consumptions, when tracking sines of varying frequency and maximum amplitude A. Simulations with α=−15 deg (dark grey), α=0 (black), and α=15 deg (light grey).

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Figure 9

Actuator mean (right) and maximum (left) power consumptions, when tracking sines of varying frequency for α=0. Simulations with A=Amax (black), A=Amax/2 (dark gray), and A=Amax/4 (light gray).

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Figure 10

Experimental setup, front view (left) and side view (right)

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Figure 11

Actuator force (left) and effective stiffness (right) for α=0: measurement (solid), analytic model (dash-dotted), and SIMMECHANICS model (dotted)

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Figure 12

Actuator disturbance moment for α=[−3.4,0,4.2] deg: measurement (solid), analytic model (dash-dotted), and SIMMECHANICS model (dotted)

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Figure 13

Friction characteristics measured (solid) and simulated (dash-dotted): friction moment as a function of the rotational velocity of the motor (left) and γ as a function of the realized motor moment in stiction

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Figure 14

Small step: actuator force (top) and power consumption (bottom) for a positive step (left) and negative step (right). The lines represent the reference force (dashed), measurement (solid black), and simulation (grey).

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Figure 15

Maximum amplitude step: actuator force (top) and power consumption (bottom) for a positive step (left) and negative step (right). The lines represent the reference force (dashed), measurement (solid black), and simulation (grey).

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Figure 16

Transfer function estimate from Fref to Fact (left) and γref to γ (right) for α=0 and mean (γ)=0. Measurement with hydropulse (dash-dotted), measurement with hydropulse replaced by a fixed steel rod (solid black), and simulation (grey).

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Figure 17

Transfer function estimate, measured (solid black) and simulated (grey), from l sin α to Fact for γ=0 (left) and Fref=0 (right).

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