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Research Papers

A Comparative Analysis of Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

[+] Author and Article Information
Lorenzo Serrao1

Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210serrao.4@osu.edu

Simona Onori

Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210onori.1@osu.edu

Giorgio Rizzoni

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210rizzoni.1@osu.edu

1

Corresponding author. Present address: IFP Energies nouvelles, Rueil-Malmaison, France.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 133(3), 031012 (Mar 25, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003267 History: Received January 25, 2010; Revised September 26, 2010; Published March 25, 2011; Online March 25, 2011

This paper presents a formalization of the energy management problem in hybrid electric vehicles and a comparison of three known methods for solving the resulting optimization problem. Dynamic programming (DP), Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP), and equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) are described and analyzed, showing formally their substantial equivalence. Simulation results are also provided to demonstrate the application of the strategies. The theoretical background for each strategy is described in detail using the same formal framework. Of the three strategies, ECMS is the only implementable in real time; the equivalence with PMP and DP justifies its use as an optimal strategy and allows to tune it more effectively.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The role of energy management control in a hybrid electric vehicle

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Figure 2

Simple circuit model of a generic battery

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Figure 3

Effect of the state of charge on the circuit parameters of Fig. 2

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Figure 4

Series hybrid architecture used as application example

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Figure 5

Efficiency map of engine-generator set

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Figure 6

Fuel consumption of the genset as a function of net electric power generated (assuming operation along the optimal line OOL shown in Fig. 5)

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Figure 7

Effect of initial co-state value on SOC variation

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Figure 8

SOC correction term for ECMS, p(x)

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Figure 9

Effect of ECMS equivalence factors

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Figure 10

Comparison of the three strategies on the cycle U.S.06

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Figure 11

Evolution of λ(t) and σ(t) during the driving cycle of Fig. 1 (note the small scale of the vertical axis)

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