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Research Papers

Steady-State Biodiesel Blend Estimation via a Wideband Oxygen Sensor

[+] Author and Article Information
David B. Snyder1

Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Center at Discovery Park, Purdue University, 140 South Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2031dbsnyder@purdue.edu

Gayatri H. Adi, Michael P. Bunce, Christopher A. Satkoski, Gregory M. Shaver

Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Center at Discovery Park, Purdue University, 140 South Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2031

1

Corresponding author.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 131(4), 041012 (May 21, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3117205 History: Received March 24, 2008; Revised February 17, 2009; Published May 21, 2009

A substantial opportunity exists to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as well as dependence on foreign oil, by developing strategies to cleanly and efficiently use biodiesel, a renewable domestically available alternative diesel fuel. However, biodiesel utilization presents several challenges, including decreased fuel energy density and increased emissions of smog-generating nitrogen oxides (NOx). These negative aspects can likely be mitigated via closed-loop combustion control provided the properties of the fuel blend can be estimated accurately, on-vehicle, in real-time. To this end, this paper presents a method to practically estimate the biodiesel content of fuel being used in a diesel engine during steady-state operation. The simple generalizable physically motivated estimation strategy presented utilizes information from a wideband oxygen sensor in the engine’s exhaust stream, coupled with knowledge of the air-fuel ratio, to estimate the biodiesel content of the fuel. Experimental validation was performed on a 2007 Cummins 6.7 l ISB series engine. Four fuel blends (0%, 20%, 50%, and 100% biodiesel) were tested at a wide variety of torque-speed conditions. The estimation strategy correctly estimated the biodiesel content of the four fuel blends to within 4.2% of the true biodiesel content. Blends of 0%, 20%, 50%, and 100% were estimated to be 2.5%, 17.1%, 54.2%, and 96.8%, respectively. The results indicate that the estimation strategy presented is capable of accurately estimating the biodiesel content in a diesel engine during steady-state engine operation. This method offers a practical alternative to in-the-fuel type sensors because wideband oxygen sensors are already in widespread production and are in place on some modern diesel vehicles today.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Average impact of biodiesel blends on emissions from pre-1998 heavy-duty on-highway engines in 2002 EPA study (1)

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Figure 2

Proposed two-input one-output approach for steady-state biodiesel blend estimation

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Figure 3

Model predictions: O2 versus mixture fraction for conventional diesel (B0) and soy-based methyl ester biodiesel (B100)

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Figure 4

Model predictions: O2 versus mixture fraction for soy-based methyl ester biodiesel blends B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100

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Figure 5

O2 versus mixture fraction using both the direct model and the simplified best fit model

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Figure 6

Contour plot of BDvol−BDvol,best fit, the difference between direct estimator, Eq. 8, and simplified best fit estimator, Eq. 14

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Figure 7

Engine used for steady-state experimental validation: a 6.7 l 2007 Cummins ISB

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Figure 8

Experimental data collection torque-speed points

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Figure 9

Experimental results: O2 versus mixture fraction for B0, B20, B50, and B100

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