0
Research Papers

Longitudinal Motion Based Lightweight Vehicle Payload Parameter Real-Time Estimations

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoyu Huang

e-mail: huang.638@osu.edu

Junmin Wang

e-mail: wang.1381@osu.edu
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received May 24, 2011; final manuscript received June 22, 2012; published online November 7, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Xubin Song.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(1), 011013 (Nov 07, 2012) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1163; doi: 10.1115/1.4007554 History: Received May 24, 2011; Revised June 22, 2012

This paper proposes a longitudinal motion based payload parameter estimator (PPE) design for four-wheel-independently driven lightweight vehicles (LWVs), whose dynamics and control are substantially affected by their payload variations due to the LWVs' significantly reduced sizes and weights. Accurate and real-time estimation of payload parameters, including payload mass and its onboard planar location, will be helpful for LWV control (particularly under challenging driving conditions) and load monitoring. The proposed estimation method consists of three steps in sequential: tire effective radius identification for undriven wheels at constant speed driving; payload mass estimation during acceleration–deceleration period; and payload planar location estimation (PPLE). The PPLE is divided into two parts: a tire nominal normal force estimator (NNFE) based on a recursive least squares algorithm using signals generated by the redundant inputs, and a parameter calculator combining these estimated nominal normal forces. The prototype LWV is a lightweight electric ground vehicle (EGV) with separable torque control of the four wheels enabled by four in-wheel motors, which allow redundant input injections in the designed maneuvers. Experimental results obtained on an EGV road test show that the proposed PPE is capable of accurately estimating payload parameters, and it is independent of other unknown parameters such as tire-road friction coefficient.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
© 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

“Materials Technologies: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishments,” available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/materials_tech_goals.pdf
Huang, X., and Wang, J., 2011, “Lightweight Vehicle Control-Oriented Modeling and Payload Parameter Sensitivity Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 60(5), pp. 1999–2011. [CrossRef]
Marimuthu, R. P., Jang, B. C., and Hong, S. J., 2006, “A Study on SUV Parameters Sensitivity on Rollover Propensity,” SAEPaper No. 2006-01-0795 [CrossRef].
Merzouki, R., Bouteldja, M., Imine, H., and Cadiou, J. C., 2004, “Friction Force Estimation and Adaptive Control for Tire-Road Contact,” 2004 IEEE /RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems [CrossRef].
Chen, Y., and Wang, J., 2011, “Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control With Input Injections for Longitudinal Motion Independent Road Frictional Condition Estimation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 60(3), pp. 839–848. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., and Hsieh, M. F., 2009, “Vehicle Yaw-Inertia- and Mass-Independent Adaptive Steering Control,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Autom. Eng.), 223(9), pp. 1101–1108. [CrossRef]
Kahveci, N. E., 2008, “Adaptive Steering Control for Uncertain Vehicle Dynamics With Crosswind Effects and Steering Angle Constraints,” 2008 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety [CrossRef].
Du, H., Zhang, N., and Dong, G., 2010, “Stabilizing Vehicle Lateral Dynamics With Considerations of Parameter Uncertainties and Control Saturation Through Robust Yaw Control,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 59(5), pp. 2593–2597. [CrossRef]
Ahmadi, J., Sedigh, A. K., and Kabganian, M., 2009, “Adaptive Vehicle Lateral-Plane Motion Control Using Optimal Tire Friction Forces With Saturation Limits Consideration,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 58(8), pp. 4098–4107. [CrossRef]
Wang, R., and Wang, J., 2012, “Fault-Tolerant Control for Electric Ground Vehicles With Independently-Actuated In-Wheel Motors,” ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 134(2), p. 021014. [CrossRef]
Wang, R., and Wang, J., 2011, “Fault-Tolerant Control With Active Fault Diagnosis for Four-Wheel Independently-Driven Electric Ground Vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 60(9), pp. 4276–4287. [CrossRef]
Jung-Shan, L., and Kanellakopoulos, I., 1998, “Nonlinearities Enhance Parameter Convergence in Output-Feedback Systems,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, 43(1), pp. 204–222. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., and Longoria, R. G., 2009, “Coordinated and Reconfigurable Vehicle Dynamics Control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 17(3), pp. 723–732. [CrossRef]
Tjonnas, J., and Johansen, T. A., 2010, “Stabilization of Automotive Vehicles Using Active Steering and Adaptive Brake Control Allocation,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 18(3), pp. 545–558. [CrossRef]
Wesemeier, D., and Isermann, R., 2009, “Identification of Vehicle Parameters Using Stationary Driving Maneuvers,” Control Eng. Pract., 17(12), pp. 1426–1431. [CrossRef]
Pence, B. L., Fathy, H. K., and Stein, J. L., 2009, “Sprung Mass Estimation for Off-Road Vehicles via Base-Excitation Suspension Dynamics and Recursive Least Squares,” Proceedings of 2009 American Control Conference (ACC '09). [CrossRef]
Han, K.-J., Kim, I.-K., Jo, H. Y., and Huh, K.-S., 2009, “Development and Experimental Evaluation of an Online Estimation System for Vehicle Mass,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Autom. Eng.), 223(2), pp. 167–177. [CrossRef]
Huang, J., and Lin, W. C., 2008, “EKF-Based In-Vehicle Estimation of Relative CG Height,” Proceedings of 2008 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference. [CrossRef]
Fathy, H. K., Kang, D., and Stein, J. L., 2008, “Online Vehicle Mass Estimation Using Recursive Least Squares and Supervisory Data Extraction,” Proceedings of 2008 American Control Conference (ACC). [CrossRef]
Huh, K., Lim, S., Jung, J., Hong, D., Han, S., Han, K., Jo, H. Y., and Yun, J. M., 2007, “Vehicle Mass Estimator for Adaptive Roll Stability Control,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0820. [CrossRef]
Wenzel, T. A., Burnham, K. J., Blundell, M. V., and Williams, R. A., 2006, “Dual Extended Kalman Filter for Vehicle State and Parameter Estimation,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 44(2), pp. 153–171. [CrossRef]
Kober, W., and Hirschberg, W., 2006, “On-Board Payload Identification for Commercial Vehicles,” 2006 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics [CrossRef].
Hayakawa, K., Hibino, R., Osawa, M., Sonoda, S., Murahashi, T., Yamada, N., and Kato, H., 2006, “On-Board Estimation of Vehicle Weight By Optimizing Signal Processing,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-1489. [CrossRef]
Winstead, V., and Kolmanovsky, I. V., 2005, “Estimation of Road Grade and Vehicle Mass via Model Predictive Control,” Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications. [CrossRef]
Vahidi, A., Stefanopoulou, A., and Peng, H., 2005, “Recursive Least Squares With Forgetting for Online Estimation of Vehicle Mass and Road Grade: Theory and Experiments,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 43(1), pp. 31–55. [CrossRef]
Kiencke, U., and Nielsen, L., 2005, Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle, Springer, New York.
Massel, T., Ding, E. L., and Arndt, M., 2004, “Estimation of Vehicle Loading State,” Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications. [CrossRef]
Bae, H. S., Ryu, J., and Gerdes, J. C., 2001, “Road Grade and Vehicle Parameter Estimation for Longitudinal Control Using GPS,” Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference.
Kim, C., and Ro, P. I., 2000, “Reduced-Order Modelling and Parameter Estimation for a Quarter-Car Suspension System,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Autom. Eng.), 214(8), pp. 851–864. [CrossRef]
Solmaz, S., Akar, M., Shorten, R., and Kalkkuhl, J., 2008, “Real-Time Multiple-Model Estimation of Centre of Gravity Position in Automotive Vehicles,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 46(9), pp. 763–788. [CrossRef]
Rajamani, R., Piyabongkarn, D., Tsourapas, V., and Lew, J. Y., 2011, “Parameter and State Estimation in Vehicle Roll Dynamics,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 12(4), pp. 1558–1567. [CrossRef]
Umeno, T., Asano, K., Ohashi, H., Yonetani, M., Naitou, T., and Taguchi, T., 2001, “Observer Based Estimation of Parameter Variations and Its Application to Tyre Pressure Diagnosis,” Control Eng. Pract., 9(6), pp. 639–645. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., Alexander, L., and Rajamani, R., 2004, “Friction Estimation on Highway Vehicles Using Longitudinal Measurements,” ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 126(2), pp. 265–275. [CrossRef]
Carlson, C. R., and Gerdes, J. C., 2005, “Consistent Nonlinear Estimation of Longitudinal Tire Stiffness and Effective Radius,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 13(6), pp. 1010–1020. [CrossRef]
Huang, X., and Wang, J., 2011, “Payload Parameter Real-Time Estimation for Lightweight Vehicles,” Proceedings of 2011ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference. [CrossRef]
Rajamani, R., Piyabongkarn, N., Lew, J., Yi, K., and Phanomchoeng, G., 2010, “Tire-Road Friction-Coefficient Estimation,” IEEE Control Syst, 30(4), pp. 54–69. [CrossRef]
Gustafsson, F., 1997, “Slip-Based Tire-Road Friction Estimation,” Automatica, 33(6), pp. 1087–1099. [CrossRef]
Wang, R., Chen, Y., Feng, D., Huang, X., and Wang, J., 2011, “Development and Performance Characterization of an Electric Ground Vehicle With Independently-Actuated In-Wheel Motors,” J. Power Sources, 196(8), pp. 3962–3971. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y., and Wang, J., 2012, “Design and Evaluation on Electric Differentials for Over-Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles With Four Independent In-Wheel Motors,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 61(4), pp. 1534–1542. [CrossRef]
Jazar, R. N., 2008, Vehicle Dynamics: Theory and Application, Springer, Riverdale, NY.
Wong, J. Y., 2008, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Sastry, S., and Bodson, M., 1989, Adaptive Control: Stability, Convergence and Robustness, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Shraim, H., Ananou, B., Fridman, L., Noura, H., and Ouladsine, M., 2006, “Sliding Mode Observers for the Estimation of Vehicle Parameters, Forces and States of the Center of Gravity,” 2006 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. [CrossRef]
Ray, L. R., 1997, “Nonlinear Tire Force Estimation and Road Friction Identification: Simulation and Experiments,” Automatica, 33(10), pp. 1819–1833. [CrossRef]
Dakhlallah, J., Glaser, S., Mammar, S., and Sebsadji, Y., 2008, “Tire-Road Forces Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter and Sideslip Angle Evaluation,” Proceedings of 2008 American Control Conference (ACC). [CrossRef]
Cho, W., Yoon, J., Yim, S., Koo, B., and Yi, K., 2010, “Estimation of Tire Forces for Application to Vehicle Stability Control,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 59(2), pp. 638–649. [CrossRef]
Oxford Technical Systems, 2006, “RT3000 Inertial and Measurement System User Manual.”
Mango, N., 2004, “Measurement & Calculation of Vehicle Center of Gravity Using Portable Wheel Scales,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1076. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Top view of LWV with payload

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Overall PPE scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Individual wheel dynamics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Simplified linear tire model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Wheel speed signal filtering with AGF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Electric ground vehicle with in-wheel motors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Payload weights and inertia measurement system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Tire effective radius identification

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Signals in payload mass estimation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Estimated LWV total mass

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Driving (front) and braking (rear) torques

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Driving torque and corresponding slip ratio (front-right wheel)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Tire nominal normal forces

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In