0
Research Papers

A New Dynamical Model of Flexible Cracked Wind Turbines for Health Monitoring

[+] Author and Article Information
M. A. Ben Hassena

Research Group on Intelligent Machines,
National Engineering School of Sfax,
University of Sfax,
BP 1173,
3038 Sfax, Tunisia
e-mail: b.hassena.med.amin@gmail.com

F. Najar

Applied Mechanics and Systems
Research Laboratory,
Tunisia Polytechnic School,
University of Carthage,
BP 743,
2078 La Marsa, Tunisia

B. Aydi

Engineering Science and Mechanics,
Virginia Tech,
223 Norris Hall,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

S. Choura

Research Group on Intelligent Machines,
National Engineering School of Sfax,
University of Sfax,
BP 1173,
3038 Sfax, Tunisia

F. H. Ghorbel

Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Materials Science,
Rice University,
6100 Main Street,
Houston, TX 77005-1892

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control. Manuscript received July 20, 2011; final manuscript received September 12, 2012; published online March 28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Nariman Sepehri.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(3), 031013 (Mar 28, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1216; doi: 10.1115/1.4023210 History: Received July 20, 2011; Revised September 12, 2012

We develop a mathematical model of a large-scale cracked horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) describing the flapping flexure of the flexible tower and blades. The proposed model has enough fidelity to be used in health monitoring applications. The equations of motion account for the effect of the applied aerodynamic forces, modeled using the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, and the location and shape of a crack introduced into one of the blades. We first examine the static response of the HAWT in presence of the crack, and then we formulate the eigenvalue problem and determine the natural frequencies and associated mode shapes. We show that both shape and location of the crack influence the first four natural frequencies. The dynamic response of the HAWT subjected to wind and gravity is obtained using a Galerkin procedure. We conduct a parametric analysis to investigate the influence of the crack on the eigenstructure and overall dynamics. The simulations depict that the first four natural frequencies are reduced as the crack size become more important. We also conclude that the tower root moment may be considered as potential indicators for health monitoring purposes.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lee, D., Hodges, D., and Patil, M., 2002, “Multi-Flexible-Body Dynamic Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” Wind Energy, 5, pp. 281–300. [CrossRef]
Murtagh, P., Basu, B., and Broderick, B., 2005, “Along-Wind Response of a Wind Turbine Tower With Blade Coupling Subjected to Rotationally Sampled Wind Loading,” Eng. Struct., 27(8), pp. 1209–1219. [CrossRef]
Chen, X., Li, J., and Chen, J., 2009, “Wind-Induced Response Analysis of a Wind Turbine Tower Including the Blade-Tower Coupling Effect,” J. Zhejiang Univ., Sci., 10(11), pp. 1573–1580. [CrossRef]
Meng, F., Pavel, M., and van Tooren, M., 2008, “Aeroelastic Stability Analysis of Large Scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Using Reduced Order System Identification Based on Flexible Nonlinear Multi-Body Dynamics,” Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.
Santos, I., Saracho, C., Smith, J., and Eiland, J., 2004, “Contribution to Experimental Validation of Linear and Non-Linear Dynamic Models for Representing Rotor-Blade Parametric Coupled Vibrations,” J. Sound Vib., 271(3–5), pp. 883–904. [CrossRef]
Hansen, M., Sørensen, J., Voutsinas, S., Sørensen, N., and Madsen, H., 2006, “State of the Art in Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 42(4), pp. 285–330. [CrossRef]
Younsi, R., El-Batanony, I., Tritsch, J., Naji, H., and Landjerit, B., 2001, “Dynamic Study of a Wind Turbine Blade With Horizontal Axis,” Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids, 20, pp. 241–252. [CrossRef]
Patil, M., and Hodges, D., 2006, “Variable-Order Finite Elements for Nonlinear, Intrinsic, Mixed Beam Equations,” Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Forum and Technology Display of the American Helicopter Society International, Vol. 62, p. 601.
Bert, C., and Malik, M., 1996, “Differential Quadrature Method in Computational Mechanics: A Review,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 49(1), pp. 1–28. [CrossRef]
Hsu, M., 2004, “Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of an Orthotropic Composite Rotor Blade,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., 12(4), pp. 247–255.
Kessentini, S., Choura, S., Najar, F., and Franchek, M., 2010, “Modeling and Dynamics of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine,” J. Vib. Control, 16(13), pp. 2001–2021. [CrossRef]
Ghoshal, A., Sundaresan, M., Schulz, M., and Frank Pai, P., 2000, “Structural Health Monitoring Techniques for Wind Turbine Blades,” J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 85(3), pp. 309–324. [CrossRef]
Marin, J., Barroso, A., Paris, F., and Canas, J., 2009, “Study of Fatigue Damage in Wind Turbine Blades,” Eng. Failure Anal., 16(2), pp. 656–668. [CrossRef]
Ciang, C., Lee, J., and Bang, H., 2008, “Structural Health Monitoring for a Wind Turbine System: A Review of Damage Detection Methods,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 19, p. 122001. [CrossRef]
Sundaresan, M., Schulz, M., and Ghoshal, A., 2002, “Structural Health Monitoring Static Test of a Wind Turbine Blade,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report No. NREL/SR-500-28719.
Dolinski, L., and Krawczuk, M., 2009, “Damage Detection in Turbine Wind Blades by Vibration Based Methods,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 181(1), p. 012086. [CrossRef]
Hameed, Z., Hong, Y., Cho, Y., Ahn, S., and Song, C., 2009, “Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection of Wind Turbines and Related Algorithms: A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 13(1), pp. 1–39. [CrossRef]
Yu, T., Han, Q., Qin, Z., and Wen, B., 2006, “Identification of Crack Location and Depth in Rotating Machinery Based on Artificial Neural Network,” Adv. Neural Netw., 3973, pp. 982–990. [CrossRef]
Johnson, J., Hughes, S., and van Dam, J., 2009, “A Stereo-Videogrammetry System for Monitoring Wind Turbine Blade Surfaces During Structural Testing,” ASME Early Career Tech. J., 8(1), pp. 1–10.
Kim, H., Kang, L., Han, J., and Bang, H., 2010, “Real-Time Shape Estimation With Fiber Optic Sensors Distributed in Rotor Blades,” European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition (EWEC2010), Vol. 62, p. 601.
Moriarty, P., and Hansen, A., 2005, “Aerodyn Theory Manual,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Ohio State University, Technical Report No. NREL/EL-500-36881.
Reuss, R., Hoffman, M., and Gregorek, G., 1995, “Effects of Surface Roughness and Vortex Generators on the NACA 4415 Airfoil,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Ohio State University, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-442-6472.
Burton, T., Sharpe, D., Jenkins, N., and Bossanyi, E., 2001, Handbook of Wind Energy, Wiley, New York.
Vestas, 2011, V52-850, www.vestas.com
Tomasiello, S., 1998, “Differential Quadrature Method: Application to Initial-Boundary-Value Problems,” J. Sound Vib., 218(4), pp. 573–585. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the HAWT and (b) blades' attached frames

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Crack position parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Blade element velocities and angles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Curve fitting of the out-of-plane force FXB

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

First set of mode shapes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Influence of crack location with small size

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Influence of crack location with large size

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Convergence of the tower and first blade solutions using m = 4 and m = 8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Response of the cracked HAWT out-of-plane vibration: (solid) without rotation (dashed) with rotation θ·=π2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Tip displacement and root moment errors of the HAWT in the presence of crack and rotating hub

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Influence of the crack width on the tip deflection of the first blade and root moment of the tower

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Influence of the crack position on the tip deflection of the first blade and root moment of the tower

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Influence of the crack depth on the tip deflection of the first blade and root moment of the tower

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Tower root moment approximation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In