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Research Papers

An Intelligent Tire Based Tire-Road Friction Estimation Technique and Adaptive Wheel Slip Controller for Antilock Brake System

[+] Author and Article Information
Kanwar B. Singh

e-mail: kbsingh@vt.edu

Mustafa Ali Arat

e-mail: marat@vt.edu

Saied Taheri

e-mail: staheri@vt.edu
Intelligent Transportation Laboratory (ITL),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control. Manuscript received August 14, 2011; final manuscript received July 18, 2012; published online February 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Luis Alvarez.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(3), 031002 (Feb 21, 2013) (26 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1256; doi: 10.1115/1.4007704 History: Received August 14, 2011; Revised July 18, 2012

The contact between the tire and the road is the key enabler of vehicle acceleration, deceleration and steering. However, due to changes to the road conditions, the driver's ability to maintain a stable vehicle may be at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road friction coefficient is available. Existing tire-road friction estimation approaches often require certain levels of vehicle longitudinal and/or lateral motion to satisfy the persistence of excitation condition for reliable estimations. Such excitations may undesirably interfere with vehicle motion controls. This paper presents a novel development and implementation of a real-time tire-road contact parameter estimation methodology using acceleration signals from an intelligent tire. The proposed method characterizes the terrain using the measured frequency response of the tire vibrations and provides the capability to estimate the tire road friction coefficient under extremely lower levels of force utilization. Under higher levels of force excitation (high slip conditions), the increased vibration levels due to the stick/slip phenomenon linked to the tread block vibration modes make the proposed tire vibrations based method unsuitable. Therefore for high slip conditions, a brush model-based nonlinear least squares (NLLS) parameter estimation approach is proposed. Hence an integrated approach using the intelligent tire based friction estimator and the model based estimator gives us the capability to reliably estimate friction for a wider range of excitations. Considering the strong interdependence between the operating road surface condition and the instantaneous forces and moments generated; this real time estimate of the tire-road friction coefficient is expected to play a pivotal role in improving the performance of a number of vehicle control systems. In particular, this paper focuses on the possibility of enhancing the performance of the ABS control systems. In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, the design and implementation of a fuzzy/sliding mode/proportional integral (fuzzy-SMC-PI (FSP)) control methodology is proposed. The results show significant improvements in the stopping distance of a vehicle equipped with an intelligent tire based FSP controller as compared to a vehicle equipped with a standard ABS.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Free body diagram of the quarter car model

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Fig. 2

Intelligent tire application: (a) sensor mounting location, (b) instrumented tire assembly, (c) mobile tire test rig, and (d) test rig attached to the towing vehicle

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Fig. 3

Measured acceleration signal for one rotation

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Fig. 4

Measured circumferential acceleration signal under free-rolling, traction, braking, and steering conditions

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Fig. 10

Input MF: (a) tire speed, (b) tire pressure, and (c) vibration ratio; output MF: (d) terrain type

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Fig. 11

Flowchart of the proposed terrain classification algorithm

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Fig. 12

Tire tested on different road surface conditions: (a) rough asphalt, (b) regular asphalt, (c) smooth asphalt, and (d) wet asphalt

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Fig. 13

Performance of the fuzzy logic classifier—low-slip conditions

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Fig. 14

Performance of the fuzzy logic classifier—high-slip conditions

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Fig. 15

Circumferential acceleration signal under low-slip conditions (top), and increased vibration levels in the circumferential acceleration signal under high-slip conditions (bottom)

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Fig. 5

Tire tested on different road surface conditions: (a) dry surface testing, and (b) wet surface testing; roughness dependence study: (c) radial signal PSD, and (d) circumferential signal PSD

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Fig. 6

(a) Accelerometer signal domains; PSD waveforms using: (b) all the domains, (c) only the pre-trailing domain, and (c) only the post-trailing domain

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Fig. 7

High and low frequency domains in the circumferential acceleration PSD

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Fig. 8

Vibration ratio on dry and wet surface conditions for a range of tire speeds

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Fig. 9

Fuzzy logic based controller architecture

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Fig. 16

Adaptation of the brush model toward the magic formula data

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Fig. 17

Tire force estimator architecture

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Fig. 18

Straight-line braking test—SMC observer—tire force estimates

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Fig. 19

Straight-line braking test—estimated vehicle speed compared with the reference vehicle speed (top), and estimated wheel slip compared with the reference wheel slip (bottom)

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Fig. 20

Measured radial and circumferential acceleration signal for one tire rotation

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Fig. 21

Architecture of the proposed ANN model

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Fig. 23

Friction estimation results using the brush model based algorithm under high-slip conditions

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Fig. 24

Architecture of the proposed integrated approach using an intelligent tire based friction estimator and the model based estimator

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Fig. 25

Baseline ABS model

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Fig. 26

Flowchart of the used baseline ABS algorithm

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Fig. 28

Baseline ABS model performance (a) high-μ and (b) low-μ

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Fig. 29

SMC based ABS model performance (a) high-μ and (b) low-μ

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Fig. 30

Comparison of performance of the two ABS algorithms (a) high-μ, (b) high-μ, (c) low-μ, and (d) low-μ

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Fig. 31

Implementation of the proposed FSP ABS

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Fig. 32

Fuzzy logic membership functions

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Fig. 33

FSP based ABS performance (a) high-μ and (b) low-μ

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Fig. 35

Intelligent tire based ABS with road-condition estimator and brake preconditioning module

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Fig. 36

Jump-μ test results (a) no intelligent tire and no brake preconditioning, (b) with intelligent tire and no brake preconditioning, and (c) with intelligent tire and brake preconditioning

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Fig. 37

Jump-μ results for extreme surface friction conditions (high=1-low=0.2-high=1) (a) without brake preconditioning and (b) with brake preconditioning

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Fig. 38

Jump-μ results for extreme surface friction conditions (low = 0.2-high = 1-low = 0.2) (a) and (b)

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