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Research Papers

Synchronization of Networked Mechanical Systems With Communication Delays and Human Input

[+] Author and Article Information
Yen-Chen Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Cheng Kung University,
Tainan 70101, Taiwan
e-mail: yliu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Nikhil Chopra

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Institute for Systems Research,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: nchopra@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 18, 2010; final manuscript received December 13, 2012; published online May 10, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Swaroop Darbha.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(4), 041004 (May 10, 2013) (14 pages) Paper No: DS-10-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4023398 History: Received February 18, 2010; Revised December 13, 2012

The problem of controlling a group of networked mechanical systems to synchronize and follow a common trajectory is studied in this paper. We first address the results for networked mechanical systems to achieve synchronization when the interagent communication graph is balanced and strongly connected with communication delays. Subsequently, a control law is developed to guarantee synchronization and trajectory tracking for networked mechanical systems communicating on regular graphs when there are constant time delays in communication and the interconnection topology is time-varying. The case when a human operator input is introduced in the closed-loop system is also considered. It is demonstrated that a bounded human operator input results in bounded tracking and synchronization errors, even when there are constant time delays in communication. The simulation and experimental results are presented by utilizing the kinematic and dynamic models of PHANToM Omni derived in this paper.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Regular graphs for synchronization with switching topology and delays

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Fig. 2

Joint configurations of the agents under switching topology and delays

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Fig. 3

Estimates of the unknown parameters for the networked mechanical system under switching topology and delays

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Fig. 4

The appearance of the PHANToM Omni haptic device

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the home configuration of the PHANToM Omni haptic device

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Fig. 6

Balanced communication topologies for the experiments, where the agents are PHANToM Omni haptic devices

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Fig. 7

Joint configuration of the agents when following a common trajectory with controlled synchronization

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Fig. 8

Estimates of the unknown parameters in the delay-free case

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Fig. 9

Joint configuration of the agents in the presence of communication delays

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Fig. 10

The uncertain parameters are bounded even when there are communication delays in the closed-loop system

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Fig. 11

Synchronizing errors between agents in the absence of human input

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Fig. 12

Joint configuration of the agents when agent 3 is influenced by a human input

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Fig. 13

Joint configuration of the agents under communication delays and a human input

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Fig. 14

Synchronizing errors between agents in the presence of human input

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