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Research Papers

Pulse Width Modulation of Water Jet Propulsion Systems Using High-Speed Coanda-Effect Valves

[+] Author and Article Information
Anirban Mazumdar

Graduate Research Assistant
e-mail: amazumda@mit.edu

H. Harry Asada

Ford Professor Mechanical Engineering Fellow ASME
e-mail: asada@mit.edu
d'Arbeloff Laboratory for Information Sciences,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control. Manuscript received September 23, 2012; final manuscript received April 24, 2013; published online July 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yang Shi.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(5), 051019 (Jul 18, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: DS-12-1313; doi: 10.1115/1.4024365 History: Received September 23, 2012; Revised April 24, 2013

An integrated high-speed valve switching and pump output control scheme are developed for precision maneuvering of underwater vehicles. High-speed Coanda-effect valves combined with a centrifugal pump allow for precise control of thrust force using a unique pulse width modulation (PWM) control scheme, where both pulse width and pulse height are controlled in a coordinated manner. Dead zones and other complex nonlinear dynamics of traditional propeller thrusters and water jet pumps are avoided with use of the integrated pump-valve control. Three control algorithms for coordinating valve switching and pump output are presented. A simplified nonlinear hydrodynamic model of underwater vehicles is constructed, and design trade-offs between PWM frequency and pulse height, with regard to steady state oscillations, are addressed. The control algorithms are implemented on a prototype underwater vehicle and the theoretical results are verified through experiments.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Topics: Pumps , Valves , Oscillations
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Figures

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Fig. 1

An illustration of the Coanda jet device and the key dimensions

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Fig. 2

An illustration of the forces and moments that result from the pump-valve system

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Fig. 3

Static performance of the pump-valve system. The force–speed profile is shown in (a) as well as an illustration of the linear relationship between F and ω2 is shown in (b).

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Fig. 4

CFD simulations illustrating the valve switching performance for various pump speeds

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Fig. 5

Block diagram of dual pump-valve control

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Fig. 6

Dual pump-valve control algorithms: (a) pump speed control, (b) valve PWM control, and (c) hybrid control. Each panel includes (i) PWM duty, (ii) pump output, and (iii) the resultant thrust, F, all in relation to u

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Fig. 7

Illustration of the vehicle coordinate frame (a) and yaw turning capability (b)

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Fig. 8

A plot of simulated oscillations illustrating the four solution cases and the smooth connections between them

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Fig. 9

A comparison of the closed form nonlinear approximation with the full nonlinear solution

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Fig. 10

A design curve illustrating how the oscillation amplitude, ψa, can be tuned by the PWM frequency, fPWM

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Fig. 11

Photographs of the robot prototype

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Fig. 12

Simulated response with PID pump speed control. The integral action slowly removes the steady state yaw error (a). The valve signal is shown in (b) to illustrate chattering.

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Fig. 13

Simulated response with PD valve PWM control on the pump-valve system. The ψ response is shown (a) as well as the force output of the pump-valve system (b).

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Fig. 14

Valve PWM with two different PWM frequencies (a). A zoomed in view (b) illustrates the substantial increase in oscillations for fPWM = 1.5 Hz.

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Fig. 15

Simulated response with PD hybrid control on the pump-valve system. The ψ response is provided (a) as well as the force output of the pump-valve system (b).

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Fig. 16

Video frames from the hybrid control experiment. The dashed black lines are a reference to illustrate the angle tracking. The dot is used to indicate the front of the robot and the arrows indicate the direction of the vehicle angular velocity.

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Fig. 17

Experimental data from the robot prototype. Note the improved steady state response of the valve PWM controller.

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Fig. 18

Experimental data comparing the hybrid controller with the valve PWM controller. Note the improvement in rise time without damaging the steady state performance.

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