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Research Papers

Fuel-Flexible Engine Control of Biodiesel Blends During Mixing-Controlled Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Gayatri H. Adi

e-mail: gayatri.adi@cummins.com

Carrie M. Hall

e-mail: hallcm@purdue.edu
Ray W. Herrick Laboratories,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

David B. Snyder

Cummins, Inc.,
Cummins Technical Center,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: david.snyder@cummins.com

Bryan W. D. Belt

e-mail: bbelt@purdue.edu

Gregory M. Shaver

e-mail: gshaver@purdue.edu
Ray W. Herrick Laboratories,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control. Manuscript received July 15, 2011; final manuscript received November 19, 2012; published online August 30, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Xubin Song.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(6), 061017 (Aug 30, 2013) (15 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1211; doi: 10.1115/1.4023299 History: Received July 15, 2011; Revised November 19, 2012

The use of biodiesel blends has the potential to result in many benefits including decreased reliance on imported petroleum, increased sustainability, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, and decreased particulate matter emissions. There are, however, two major combustion-related challenges to the use of biodiesel blends: (1) decreased torque/power capacity and (2) increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The work presented in this paper demonstrates that both of these challenges can be met through the use of a physically based fuel-flexible combustion control strategy. The approach consists of two parts: estimation, whereby the engine control module (ECM) detects the biodiesel blend fraction being supplied to the engine, and accommodation, whereby the ECM dynamically changes the control setpoints in order to improve the combustion performance. The proposed control method utilizes only stock engine hardware and does not require the creation of new ECM lookup maps. The proposed framework is incorporated into an already complex engine control system, and as such, it must be ensured that the stability of the overall system is not detrimentally affected. A formal stability analysis is outlined which demonstrates that the engine control system will remain stable. Experimental validation of this control strategy on a 2007 6.7 liter Cummins ISB series engine at several very different operating modes shows that this fuel-flexible control strategy greatly reduced or completely eliminated increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides of up to 30% while largely maintaining the torque/power capacity of the engine when operating with biodiesel.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Basic overview of conventional ECM decision-making process

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Fig. 2

System representation for stability analysis

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Fig. 3

Bounding of dynamic response of charge flow under the influence of stock ECM controllers

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Fig. 4

Modified testbed with two fuel supply tanks

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Fig. 5

B50 operating point: without and with accommodation

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Fig. 6

C75 operating point: without and with accommodation

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Fig. 7

Transient engine operation—Switching from operating point A50 to B50

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Fig. 8

Transient engine operation—Switching from operating point A50 to A75

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Fig. 9

Transient engine operation—Switching from operating point B50 to C75

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Fig. 10

Proposed framework for fuel-flexible closed-loop combustion control

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