Research Papers

Fuel-Flexible Engine Control of Biodiesel Blends During Mixing-Controlled Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Gayatri H. Adi

e-mail: gayatri.adi@cummins.com

Carrie M. Hall

e-mail: hallcm@purdue.edu
Ray W. Herrick Laboratories,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

David B. Snyder

Cummins, Inc.,
Cummins Technical Center,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: david.snyder@cummins.com

Bryan W. D. Belt

e-mail: bbelt@purdue.edu

Gregory M. Shaver

e-mail: gshaver@purdue.edu
Ray W. Herrick Laboratories,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control. Manuscript received July 15, 2011; final manuscript received November 19, 2012; published online August 30, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Xubin Song.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(6), 061017 (Aug 30, 2013) (15 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1211; doi: 10.1115/1.4023299 History: Received July 15, 2011; Revised November 19, 2012

The use of biodiesel blends has the potential to result in many benefits including decreased reliance on imported petroleum, increased sustainability, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, and decreased particulate matter emissions. There are, however, two major combustion-related challenges to the use of biodiesel blends: (1) decreased torque/power capacity and (2) increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The work presented in this paper demonstrates that both of these challenges can be met through the use of a physically based fuel-flexible combustion control strategy. The approach consists of two parts: estimation, whereby the engine control module (ECM) detects the biodiesel blend fraction being supplied to the engine, and accommodation, whereby the ECM dynamically changes the control setpoints in order to improve the combustion performance. The proposed control method utilizes only stock engine hardware and does not require the creation of new ECM lookup maps. The proposed framework is incorporated into an already complex engine control system, and as such, it must be ensured that the stability of the overall system is not detrimentally affected. A formal stability analysis is outlined which demonstrates that the engine control system will remain stable. Experimental validation of this control strategy on a 2007 6.7 liter Cummins ISB series engine at several very different operating modes shows that this fuel-flexible control strategy greatly reduced or completely eliminated increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides of up to 30% while largely maintaining the torque/power capacity of the engine when operating with biodiesel.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


National Biodiesel Board, “Estimated US Biodiesel Production by Fiscal Year,” June 14, 2011, http://www:biodiesel.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/default:shtm BiodieselProductionEstimatesCY2005 – current
Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., Polasky, S., and Tiffany, D., 2006, “Environmental, Economic, and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103(30), pp. 11206–11210. [CrossRef]
Sheehan, J., Camobreco, V., Duffield, J., Graboski, M., and Shapouri, H., 1998, “Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report No. NREL/SR-580-24089 UC Category 1503
Lapuerta, M., Armas, O., and Rondriguez-Fernandez, J., 2007, “Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Emissions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 34, pp. 198–223. [CrossRef]
Mascherosh, B., Polonowski, C., Miers, S., and Naber, J., 2009, “Combustion and Emissions Characterization of Soy Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends in an Automotive Turbocharge Diesel Engine,” Proceedings of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2009 Spring Technical Conference: ICES2009.
McCormick, R., Tennant, C., Hayes, R., Black, S., Ireland, J., McDaniel, T., Williams, A., Frailey, M., and Sharp, C., 2005, “Regulated Emissions From Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2200.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2002, “A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions,” Report No. EPA420-P-02-001.
Bunce, M., Snyder, D., Adi, G., Hall, C., Koehler, J., Davila, B., Garimella, P., Kumar, S., Stanton, D., and Shaver, G., 2011, “Optimization of Soy-Biodiesel Combustion in a Modern Diesel Engine,” Fuel, 90, pp. 2560–2570. [CrossRef]
Bunce, M., Snyder, D., Adi, G., Hall, C., Koehler, J., Davila, B., Kumar, S., Garimella, P., Stanton, D., and Shaver, G., 2010, “Stock and Optimized Performance and Emissions With 5 and 20 Percent Soy Biodiesel Blends in a Modern Common Rail Turbo-Diesel Engine,” Energy Fuels, 24, pp. 928–938. [CrossRef]
Eckerle, W., Lyford-Pike, E., Stanton, D., LaPointe, L., Whitacre, S., and Wall, J., 2008, “Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0078.
Marques, A., Monteiro, E., Moreira, N., and Malheiro, S., 2007, “NOx Emissions Reductions in Biodiesel Engine by Means of EGR Technology,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0078.
Snyder, D., Adi, G., Hall, C., and Shaver, G., 2011, “Control Variable Based Accommodation of Biodiesel Blends,” Int. J. Engine Res., 12, pp. 564–579. [CrossRef]
Szybist, J., Song, J., Alam, M., and Boehman, A., 2007, “Biodiesel Combustion, Emissions, and Emission Control,” Fuel Process. Technol., 88, pp. 679–691. [CrossRef]
Snyder, D., Adi, G., Bunce, M., Hall, C., and Shaver, G., 2010, “Dynamic Exhaust Oxygen Based Biodiesel Blend Estimation With an Extended Kalman Filter,” 2010 American Controls Conference.
Snyder, D., Adi, G., Bunce, M., SatkoskiC., and Shaver, G., 2009, “Steady-State Biodiesel Blend Estimation via a Wideband Oxygen Sensor,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 131(4). [CrossRef]
Snyder, D., Adi, G., Bunce, M., Satkoski, C., and Shaver, G., 2010, “Fuel Blend Fraction Estimation for Fuel-Flexible Combustion Control: Uncertainty Analysis,” J. Control Eng. Pract., 18, pp. 418–432. [CrossRef]
Bunce, M., 2009, “Optimization of Soy-Biodiesel Combustion in a Modern Diesel Engine,” Master's thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Jiang, L., Yilmaz, H., Christie, M., Ahn, K., and Stefanopoulou, A.2010, “Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Vehicle.” Bosch LLC., Report # DE-FC26-07NT43274.
Nakata, K., Utsumi, S., Ota, A., Kawatake, K., Kawai, T., and Tsunooka, T., 2006, “The Effect of Ethanol Fuel on a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-3380.
Theunissen, F., 2003, “Percent Ethanol Estimation on Sensorless Multi-Fuel Systems: Advantages and Limitations,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-3562.
Kalman, R., 1960, “A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 82, pp. 35–45. [CrossRef]
Adi, G., Hall, C., Snyder, D., Bunce, M., Satkoski, C., Kumar, S., Garimella, P., Stanton, D., and Shaver, G., 2009, “Soy-Biodiesel Impact on NOx Emissions and Fuel Economy for Diffusion Dominated Combustion in a Turbo-Diesel Engine Incorporating EGR and Common Rail Fuel Injection,” Energy Fuels, 23, pp. 5821–2828. [CrossRef]
Ladommatos, N., Abdelhalim, M., Zhao, H., and Hu, Z., 1996, “The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions—Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen,” SAE Paper No. 961165.
Mitchell, D., Pinson, J., and Litzinger, T., 1993, “The Effects of Simulated EGR via Intake Air Dilution on Combustion in an Optically Accessible DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 932798.
Nakayama, S., Fukuma, T., Matsunaga, A., Miyake, T., and Wakimoto, T., 2003, “A New Dynamic Combustion Control Method Based on Charge Oxygen Concentration for Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-3181.
Ropke, S., Schweimer, G., and Strauss, T., 1995, “NOx Formation in Diesel Engines for Various Fuels and Intake Gases,” SAE Paper No. 950213.
Jiang, Z., Mareels, I., and Wang, Y., 1996, “A Lyapunov Formulation of the Nonlinear Small-Gain Theorem for Interconnected ISS Systems,” Automatica, 32, pp. 1211–1215. [CrossRef]
Jiang, Z., Teel, A., and Praly, L., 1994, “Small-Gain Theorem for ISS Systems and Applications,” Automatica, 32, pp. 1211–1215. [CrossRef]
Kokotovic, P., and Arcak, M., 1999, “Constructive Nonlinear Control: A Historical Perspective,” Automatica, 37, pp. 637–662.
Sastry, S., 2010, Nonlinear Systems: Analysis, Stability, and Control, 1st ed., Springer, New York.
Khalil, H. K., 2002, Nonlinear Systems, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
LeRoy, T., 2010, “Cylinder Filling Control of Variable-Valve-Actuation Equipped Internal Combustion Engines,” Ph.D. dissertation, MINES Paris Tech, Paris.
Stengel, R., 1994, Optimal Control and Estimation, Dover Publications, Mineola, New York.
Ahn, K., Stefanopoulou, A., Jiang, L., and Yilmaz, H., 2010, “Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements,” SAE World Congress, SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0166.
Franklin, G., Powell, J., and Emami-Naeini, A., 2006, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5th ed., Pearson Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Basic overview of conventional ECM decision-making process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

System representation for stability analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Bounding of dynamic response of charge flow under the influence of stock ECM controllers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Modified testbed with two fuel supply tanks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

B50 operating point: without and with accommodation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

C75 operating point: without and with accommodation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Transient engine operation—Switching from operating point A50 to B50

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Transient engine operation—Switching from operating point A50 to A75

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Transient engine operation—Switching from operating point B50 to C75

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Proposed framework for fuel-flexible closed-loop combustion control




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In