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Research Papers

On the Observability of Loosely Coupled Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System Integrations With Five Degree of Freedom and Four Degree of Freedom Inertial Measurement Units

[+] Author and Article Information
Jonathan G. Ryan

Navigation Engineer
Leidos,
6723 Odyssey Drive,
Huntsville, AL 35806
e-mail: jonathan.g.ryan@leidos.com

David M. Bevly

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Samuel Ginn College of Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: dmbevly@eng.auburn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 21, 2012; final manuscript received November 4, 2013; published online January 16, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Xubin Song.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(2), 021023 (Jan 16, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: DS-12-1064; doi: 10.1115/1.4025985 History: Received February 21, 2012; Revised November 04, 2013

This article examines the observability of a modified loosely coupled global positioning system/inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) filter and analyzes the sideslip and attitude estimation capability of the filter. The modified filter is a loosely coupled integration which does not include a pitch rate gyro and which uses GPS course information as a measurement of heading when the vehicle is driving straight. Experimental tests are conducted which show that the modified filter has the same observability characteristics as a standard loosely coupled filter during turning events. The observability of a loosely coupled integration using only a four degree of freedom (DOF) inertial measurement unit (IMU) is also discussed and examined by experiment, as well as the sideslip and roll angle estimation performance. Finally, the error characteristics of the modified loosely coupled integration with the five DOF IMU when the filter is unobservable are studied. Monte Carlo simulations of long periods of straight driving with various sensor qualities are presented to show the worst case attitude errors when the filter is unobservable.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sideslip definitions in the navigation and body coordinate frames

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Fig. 2

Rank of the observability Grammian versus time of the loosely coupled GPS/INS filter (top). Acceleration versus time (bottom)

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Fig. 3

Accelerometer bias estimation of five DOF modified loosely coupled estimator

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Fig. 4

Roll angle estimation of five DOF modified loosely coupled estimator

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Fig. 5

Accelerometer bias estimation of four DOF modified loosely coupled estimator

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Fig. 6

Roll angle estimation of four DOF modified loosely coupled estimator

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Fig. 7

Roll angle estimation of four DOF modified loosely coupled estimator during high dynamic test

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Fig. 8

Sideslip angle estimation of four DOF modified loosely coupled estimator during high dynamic test

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Fig. 9

Accelerometer bias estimates and true biases for single simulation with Memsense specified bias characteristics

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Fig. 10

Roll errors of 100 Monte Carlo simulations using Memsense specified bias characteristics and re-initialized bias estimates

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