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Research Papers

On-Board Fuel Property Identification Method Based on High-Pressure Common Rail Pressure Signal

[+] Author and Article Information
Junfeng Zhao

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: zhao.557@osu.edu

Junmin Wang

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: wang.1381@osu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 19, 2012; final manuscript received November 26, 2013; published online February 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gregory Shaver.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(3), 031010 (Feb 19, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: DS-12-1428; doi: 10.1115/1.4026130 History: Received December 19, 2012; Revised November 26, 2013

This paper investigates the impact of fuel property variations on the common rail pressure fluctuation in high-pressure common rail (HPCR) system and explores the possibility of identifying the fuel types based on the measurement of rail pressure for internal combustion engines. Fluid transients, particularly the water hammer effect in a HPCR system, are discussed and the 1D governing equations are given. A typical HPCR system model is developed in GT-Suite with the injectors, three-plunger high-pressure pump, and pressure control valve being modeled in a relatively high level of detail. Four different fuels including gasoline, ethanol, diesel, and biodiesel are modeled and their properties including density, bulk modulus, and acoustic wave speed are validated against data in the literature. Simulation results are obtained under different conditions with variable rail pressures and engine speeds. To reduce the excessive rail pressure oscillation caused by multiple injections, only four main-injections are enabled in each engine revolution. The results show that the natural frequency of a common rail varies with the type of fuel filled in it. By applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the pressure signal, the differences of fuel properties can be revealed in the frequency domain. The experiment validation is conducted on a medium-duty diesel engine, which is equipped with a typical HPCR system and piezo-electric injectors. Tests results are given for both pure No. 2 diesel and pure soybean biodiesel at different rail pressure levels and different engine speeds. This approach is proved to be potentially useful for fuel property identification of gasoline-ethanol or diesel-biodiesel blends on internal combustion engines.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a common rail system

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Fig. 2

Structure of a three-plunger pump

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Fig. 3

Rail pressure oscillation caused by three-plunger pump

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Fig. 4

Fuel densities of fuel models

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Fig. 5

Isentropic bulk modulus of fuel models

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Fig. 6

Acoustic wave speed of fuel models

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Fig. 7

Typical fluid transient in simulation during one engine cycle

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Fig. 8

Rail pressure signal in frequency domain (p = 400 bar)

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Fig. 9

Rail pressure signals and their envelopes (p = 400 bar)

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Fig. 10

Rail pressure signals and their envelopes (p = 500 bar)

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Fig. 11

Rail pressure signals and their envelopes (p = 600 bar)

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Fig. 12

Comparison of rail natural frequencies at different engine speeds (p = 500 bar)

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Fig. 13

Measured rail pressure signals

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Fig. 14

Single-sided amplitude spectrum of rail pressure signal when eight injectors are enabled

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Fig. 15

Single-sided amplitude spectrum of rail pressure signal with four injectors enabled (1000 rpm)

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Fig. 17

Map of acoustic wave speed for B0

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Fig. 18

Single-sided amplitude spectrum of rail pressure signal with four injectors enabled (1500 rpm)

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