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Research Papers

Fault Diagnosis of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Variable Geometry Turbocharger Systems in a Passenger Car Diesel Engine Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for Air System States Estimation

[+] Author and Article Information
Hyunjun Lee

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Hanyang University,
222 Wangsimni-ro,
Seongdong-gu,
Seoul 133-791, South Korea
e-mail: thomasjr@hanyang.ac.kr

Joonhee Lee

Department of Research and Development,
Hyundai Motor Company,
150 Hyundai Yeonguso-ro
(772-1 Jangduk-kong),
Hwaseong-si,
Gyeonggi-do 445-706, South Korea
e-mail: meteorzjh@gmail.com

Myoungho Sunwoo

Professor
Department of Automotive Engineering,
Hanyang University,
222 Wangsimni-ro,
Seongdong-gu,
Seoul 133-791, South Korea
e-mail: msunwoo@hanyang.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 21, 2013; final manuscript received November 27, 2013; published online February 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gregory Shaver.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(3), 031016 (Feb 24, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: DS-13-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4026131 History: Received February 21, 2013; Revised November 27, 2013

In this paper, we propose a sliding mode observer based fault diagnosis algorithm for diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) systems. The nonlinear sliding mode observer is proposed for precise states estimation of air system in diesel engines. Based on the estimation results of the observer and the limited sensor information in mass-produced engines, a residual generation model is derived. A modified cumulative summation algorithm is applied to the residual generation model for robust fault detection and isolation of the EGR and VGT systems. The proposed observer based fault diagnosis algorithm is implemented on a real-time embedded system, and the bypass function of an engine management system (EMS) is applied to generate multiple types of fault conditions in the systems. As a result of this study, estimation performance of the proposed observer is validated and successful fault diagnosis of the EGR and VGT systems is demonstrated through engine experiments.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Air system schematic diagram of the target engine [34]

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Fig. 8

Structure of the proposed model based fault diagnosis algorithm

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Fig. 9

Structure of the residual generation model [15]

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Fig. 10

The EGR rate comparing result between reference and the observer model (engine speed: 1750 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 25 mg/str, VGT vane position: 87.6%, close)

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Fig. 11

The estimation result of the exhaust manifold pressure during the engine speed and the VGT vane position changes (fuel injection quantity: 20 mg/str, EGR valve position: 22%, open)

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Fig. 7

Validation result of the exhaust manifold pressure estimation during the EUDC of the NEDC

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Fig. 2

Target engine test bench

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Fig. 3

Structure of the engine control system and DAQ system

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Fig. 4

Convergence of the observer at steady state (engine speed: 2000 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 25 mg/str)

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Fig. 5

Phase portrait of the convergence test result (engine speed: 2000 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 25 mg/str)

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Fig. 6

Estimation result of the exhaust manifold pressure with the engine speed changes

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Fig. 13

Result of direct error accumulation at the EGR valve step test with 10 ms sampling period

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Fig. 12

Nonlinear characteristic of the EGR valve actuator

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Fig. 14

Detection result of the EGR system fault (engine speed: 1750 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 25 mg/str)

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Fig. 15

Detection result of the VGT system fault (engine speed: 1500 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 25 mg/str)

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Fig. 16

Robustness evaluation result of the proposed fault detection algorithm

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Fig. 19

Isolation result of the VGT vane position sensor fault (engine speed: 1500 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 20 mg/str)

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Fig. 20

Physical states changes of the VGT vane position sensor fault (engine speed: 1500 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 20 mg/str)

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Fig. 21

Isolation result of the VGT vane stuck fault (engine speed: 1500 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 20 mg/str)

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Fig. 17

Isolation result of the EGR valve position sensor fault (engine speed: 1750 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 15 mg/str)

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Fig. 18

Isolation result of the EGR valve stuck fault (engine speed: 2000 RPM, fuel injection quantity: 20 mg/str)

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