Research Papers

Real-Time Hybrid Switching Control of Automotive Cold Start Hydrocarbon Emission

[+] Author and Article Information
Rasoul Salehi

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Sharif University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran 1458889694
e-mail: r_salehi@mech.sharif.ir

Mahdi Shahbakhti

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Michigan Technological University,
Houghton, MI 49931
e-mail: mahdish@mtu.edu

J. Karl Hedrick

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: khedrick@me.berkeley.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received November 5, 2012; final manuscript received January 14, 2014; published online March 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Shankar Coimbatore Subramanian.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(4), 041002 (Mar 13, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-12-1361; doi: 10.1115/1.4026534 History: Received November 05, 2012; Revised January 14, 2014

Reduction of cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions requires a proper compromise between low engine-out HC emission and fast light-off of the three way catalytic converter (TWC). In this paper, a hybrid switching system is designed and optimized for reducing HC emissions of a mid-sized passenger car during the cold start phase of FTP-75 (Federal Test Procedure). This hybrid system has the benefit of increasing TWC temperature during the early stages of the driving cycle by switching between different operational modes. The switching times are optimized to reduce the cumulative tailpipe HC of an experimentally validated automotive emission model. The designed hybrid system is tested in real-time on a real engine control unit (ECU) in a model-in-the-loop structure. The results indicate the new hybrid controller reduces the HC emissions over 6.5% compared to nonswitching cold start controller designs.

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Fig. 1

General structure of engine model and the designed MIMO controller

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Fig. 2

Tracking performance of the designed controller

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Fig. 3

Comparison between simulated and measured tailpipe HC emissions

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Fig. 4

Control signals calculated by the SMC to the engine to follow the desired trajectories

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Fig. 5

Evolution of eigenvalues for uncontrolled states x2 and x4

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Fig. 6

Designed hybrid switching system

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Fig. 7

Behavior of engine brake torque and engine raw HC rate versus exhaust gas temperature

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Fig. 8

Evolution of switching times with optimization step

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Fig. 9

Comparison of the TWC conversion efficiency and temperature in three designed cold start control strategies

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Fig. 10

Comparison among HC emissions of the designed control strategies: (a) engine raw cumulative HC, (b) tailpipe cumulative HC, and (c) mode schedule

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Fig. 11

Model-in-the-loop setup used for real-time testing of the designed controller

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Fig. 12

Comparison between switching times from real-time and off-line computation

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the TWC performance among nonswitching and switching (off-line, real-time) cold start strategies

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Fig. 14

Comparison between emission performance

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Fig. 15

Effect of oxygen sensor faults on the λ-controller performance

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Fig. 16

Gradient of tailpipe emission with respect to λ at different Tcat values

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Fig. 17

Increase of HCtp due to oxygen sensor fault. (a) fault in sensor gain and (b) fault in sensor response time (the results are from running the controller in real-time on the dSPACE ECU).



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