Research Papers

Sliding Mode Observer and State-Machine-Based Fault Diagnosis With Application in a Vehicle Chassis Steering System

[+] Author and Article Information
Xian Zhang

International Center of Automotive Research,
Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Clemson, SC 29631
e-mail: xianz@g.clemson.edu

Pierluigi Pisu

International Center of Automotive Research,
Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Campbell Graduate Engineering
Center Research Drive,
Greenville, SC 29607-5257
e-mail: pisup@clemson.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received September 7, 2011; final manuscript received October 27, 2012; published online May 8, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Xubin Song.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(4), 041026 (May 08, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1281; doi: 10.1115/1.4026956 History: Received September 07, 2011; Revised October 27, 2012

A novel fault detection and identification (FDI) scheme based on sliding mode observer (SMO) residual generator and state machine residual evaluator is presented in this paper. The FDI scheme is applied to actuator and sensor faults in a vehicle chassis steering system described by a nonlinear bicycle model with three degrees of freedom. Primary residual is generated by an expanded SMO designed for linear time varying (LTV) systems. To cope with the multiple faults isolation problem, the state machine records and utilizes the previous fault information to determine the current fault state. Simulation results show that multiple fault detection and isolation can be successfully achieved by the proposed SMO and state-machine-based FDI scheme.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Isermann, R., 2001, “Diagnosis Methods for Electronic Controlled Vehicles,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 36(2–3), pp. 77–117. [CrossRef]
Pisu, P., Rizzoni, G., Soliman, A., Amberkar, S., Murray, B., and Jalics, L., 2000, “Model Based Diagnostics for Vehicle Systems,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Orlando, FL.
Fennel, H., and Ding, E. L., 2000, “A Model-Based Failsafe System for the Continental TEVES Electronic-Stability-Program (ESP),” 2000-01-1635, SAE Automotive Dynamics & Stability Conference, Troy, MI.
Fischer, D., Borner, M., Schmitt, J., and Isermann, R., 2007, “Fault Detection for Lateral and Vertical Vehicle Dynamics,” Control Eng. Pract., 15, pp. 315–324. [CrossRef]
Rehm, A., and Otterbein, S., 2005, “A Unified Approach Towards Fault Detection of Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Sensors,” Proceedings of the 16th IFAC World Congress, July, pp. 4–8.
Zhang, X., and Pisu, P., 2009, “Model-Based Fault Diagnosis for a Vehicle Chassis System,” American Control Conference (ACC-09), pp. 1116–1121.
Unger, I., and Isermann, R., 2006, “Sensor Fault Diagnosis for Lateral Vehicle Dynamics With Varying Road Surface Conditions,” 4th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Mechatronic Systems, Vol. 4, pp. 502–507.
Pisu, P., Serrani, A., and You, S., 2006, “Adaptive Threshold Based Diagnostics for Steer-by-Wire Systems,” Trans. ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas. Control, 128(2), pp. 428–435. [CrossRef]
Pisu, P., 2010, Hierarchical Model-Based Diagnostics: Theoretical Results and Applications to Vehicle Systems, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrücken, Germany.
Gillespie, T. D., 1992, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, PA.
Wong, J. Y., 1993, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
Pacejka, H. B., and Bakker, E., 1993, “Magic Formula Tyre Model,” Veh. Syst. Dyn. Int. J. Veh. Mech. Mobility, 21(Suppl. 1), pp. 1–18. [CrossRef]
Utkin, V., 1999, Sliding Mode Control in Electromechanical Systems, Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PA.
Blanke, M., Kinnaert, M., and Lunze, J., 2003, Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Cassandras, C. G., and Lafortune, S., 2008, Introduction to Discrete Event Systems, 2nd ed., Springer, New York.
Zhang, X., and Pisu, P., 2010, “State Machine-Based Fault Diagnosis With Application in a Vehicle Chassis System,” 2010 American Control Conference (ACC-10), pp. 6139–6144.
Haskara, I., 1999, “Sliding Mode Estimation and Optimization Methods in Nonlinear Control Problems,” Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

System layout of an ESP system [3]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of linear and nonlinear model with changing vehicle speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SMO-based FDI scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The residual evaluator scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

State transition after fault 2 being detected

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Command input of front steering angle and longitudinal speed of the vehicle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulation I results: residuals (absolute value) and corresponding thresholds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Simulation I results: fault types

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simulation II results: residuals (absolute value) and corresponding thresholds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Simulation II results: fault types

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Simulation III results: residuals (absolute value) and corresponding thresholds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Simulation III results: fault types

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Simulation results comparison: when tire cornering stiffness changes −35%



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In