Research Papers

An Indirect Adaptive Velocity Controller for a Novel Steer-by-Wire System

[+] Author and Article Information
Naseem Daher

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: ndaher@purdue.edu

Monika Ivantysynova

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: mivantys@purdue.edu

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received November 25, 2013; final manuscript received March 7, 2014; published online June 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gregory Shaver.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(5), 051012 (Jun 12, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: DS-13-1469; doi: 10.1115/1.4027172 History: Received November 25, 2013; Revised March 07, 2014

Increased environmental awareness and skyrocketing fuel prices have pressed researchers and engineers to find energy efficient alternatives to traditional approaches. A novel steer-by-wire technology, which is based on pump displacement control actuation, has been proposed by the authors and was shown to improve the fuel efficiency of a wheel loader steering system by 43.5%. Building on this realization, the work in this paper deals with designing an adaptive velocity controller, which takes the form of an indirect self-tuning regulator that has the facility to cope with parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities associated with hydraulically actuated systems. The indirect self-tuning regulator algorithm is selected given that the uncertain plant parameters are estimated in the process, which is a useful byproduct that gives insight into system properties that will be considered in future investigation. Furthermore, a discrete adaptive control law with low computational cost is required for the application on hand. The designed self-tuning regulator and the estimation algorithm were validated in numerical simulations as well as experimentally on a designated prototype test vehicle, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive scheme in the face of uncertainties. The controller was able to adapt to varying load mass and inertia, which correlate to varying operating conditions that influence the system dynamics. Hence, besides offering improved fuel efficiency, the new steering technology also results in smarter machines.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Rahmfeld, R., and Ivantysynova, M., 1998, “Energy Saving Hydraulic Actuators for Mobile Machines,” Proceedings of 1st Bratislavian Fluid Power Sysmposium, Častá—Píla, Slovakia, pp. 47–57.
Rahmfeld, R., and Ivantysynova, M., 2004, “Displacement Controlled Wheel Loader—A Simple and Clever Solution,” 4th International Fluid Power Conference Proceedings, Dresden, Germany, Vol. 2, pp. 183–196.
Williamson, C., and Ivantysynova, M., 2007, “The Effect of Pump Efficiency on Displacement-Controlled Actuator Systems,” Proceedings of the Tenth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Tampere, Finland, Vol. 2, pp. 301–326.
Zimmerman, J., 2008, “Design and Simulation of an Energy Saving Displacement-Controlled Actuation System for a Hydraulic Excavator,” Master's thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Yih, P., 2005, “Steer-By-Wire: Implications for Vehicle Handling and Safety,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Haggag, S., 2002, “Development of Fault-Tolerant Steer-by-Wire System for Earth Moving Equipment,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Abd-Elaziz, M., 2007, “Fault Tolerance Steer-by-Wire Electrohydraulic System With Haptic Interface for Articulated Vehicles,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Daher, N., and Ivantysynova, M., 2013, “Pump Controlled Steer-by-Wire System,” SAE 2013 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress, Rosemont, IL, SAE Paper No. 2013-01-2349.
Daher, N., and Ivantysynova, M., 2013, “System Synthesis and Controller Design of a Novel Pump Controlled Steer-by-Wire System Employing Modern Control Techniques,” ASME/Bath Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Sarasota, FL, Paper No. FPMC2013-4410.
Tsao, T., and Tomizuka, M., 1994, “Robust Adaptive and Repetitive Digital Tracking Control and Application to a Hydraulic Servo for Noncircular Machining,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 116(1), pp. 24–32. [CrossRef]
Plummer, A., and Vaughan, N., 1996, “Robust Adaptive Control for Hydraulic Servosystems,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 118(2), pp. 237–244. [CrossRef]
Bobrow, J., and Lum, K., 1996, “Adaptive, High Bandwidth Control of a Hydraulic Actuator,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 118(4), pp. 714–720. [CrossRef]
Vossoughi, G., and Donath, M., 1995, “Dynamic Feedback Linearization for Electrohydraulically Actuated Control System,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 117(4), pp. 468–477. [CrossRef]
Bonchis, A., Corke, P., Rye, D., and Ha, Q., 2001, “Variable Structure Methods in Hydraulic Servo Systems Control,” Automatica, 37(4), pp. 589–595. [CrossRef]
Hisseine, D., 2005, “Robust Tracking Control for a Hydraulic Actuation System,” IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Toronto, Ontario, pp. 422–427.
Li, G., and Khajepour, A., 2005, “Robust Control of a Hydraulically Driven Flexible Arm Using Backstepping Technique,” J. Sound Vib., 280(3–5), pp. 759–775. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y., and Handroos, H., 1999, “Technical Note Sliding Mode Control for a Class of Hydraulic Position Servo,” Mechatronics, 9(1), pp. 111–123. [CrossRef]
Yao, B., Chiu, G., and Reedy, J., 1997, “Nonlinear Adaptive Robust Control of One-DOF Electro-Hydraulic Servo Systems,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Dallas, TX, Vol. 4, pp. 191–197.
Yao, B., Bu, F., Reedy, J., and Chiu, G., 2000, “Adaptive Robust Motion Control of Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuators: Theory and Experiments,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mech., 5(1), pp. 79–91. [CrossRef]
Daher, N., and Ivantysynova, M., 2013, “Novel Energy-Saving Steer-by-Wire System for Articulated Steering Vehicles: A Compact Wheel Loader Case Study,” Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linkoping, Sweden.
Merritt, H. E., 1967, Hydraulic Control Systems, John Wileys and Sons, Cincinnati, OH, Chap. 6.
Astrom, K., and Wittenmark, B., 2008, Adaptive Control, Dover Mineola, NY, Chap. 2, 3, 11.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

DC steering hydraulic schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Block diagram of DC steering system model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Feedforward velocity control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Single-rod steering actuator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Complete steering system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Equivalent steering system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Bode plot comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Indirect adaptive control structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Dummy concrete load in the loader's bucket

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Steering maneuver—top view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Unloaded bucket operation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Loaded bucket operation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Output tracking performance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Output tracking error

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Control input signal

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Parameter a1 estimate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Parameter a0 estimate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Parameter b1 estimate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Parameter b0 estimate



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In