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Research Papers

Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Direct Acting Solenoid Valves for Clutch Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul D. Walker

School of Electrical, Mechanical
and Mechatronic Systems,
Faculty of Engineering
and Information Technology,
University of Technology, Sydney,
15 Broadway,
Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
e-mail: paul.walker@uts.edu.au

Bo Zhu

School of Electrical, Mechanical
and Mechatronic Systems,
Faculty of Engineering
and Information Technology,
University of Technology, Sydney,
15 Broadway,
Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
BAIC Motor Electric Vehicle Co. Ltd,
DaXing District,
Beijing 102606, China

Nong Zhang

School of Electrical, Mechanical
and Mechatronic Systems,
Faculty of Engineering
and Information Technology,
University of Technology, Sydney,
15 Broadway,
Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received August 2, 2013; final manuscript received May 21, 2014; published online July 10, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Shankar Coimbatore Subramanian.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 136(5), 051023 (Jul 10, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: DS-13-1297; doi: 10.1115/1.4027798 History: Received August 02, 2013; Revised May 21, 2014

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive nonlinear model of a typical direct acting solenoid valves utilized for clutch control in wet dual clutch transmissions. To do so, mathematical models of the integrated electrohydraulic solenoid valve and wet clutch piston assembly are developed in the Simulink environment of Matlab. Through simulation the operating characteristics of the control valve are analyzed, demonstrating that the valve achieves dual functionalities of high flow and accurate pressure control depending on demands. This is realized through the designed force balancing of the valve spool. The dependency of the system to system variables on input pressure and the influence of air content on dynamic response of the valve are investigated. The resilience of output pressure is demonstrated to these variables, indicating strong system reliability. Finally, the model is then validated using in situ experimental testing on a powertrain test rig. The comparison of experimental and simulated results for steady state pressure as well as step and ramp input responses demonstrate good agreement.

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References

Holmes, G. R., and Tamba, R. T., 2005, “Solenoid Control Valve,” U.S. Patent No. 6,907,901.
Song, X., Wu, C. S., and Sun, Z., 2012, “Design, Modeling, and Control of a Novel Automotive Transmission Clutch Actuation System,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mech., 17(3), pp. 582–587. [CrossRef]
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Yu, J., Chen, Z., and Lu, Y., 1994, “The Variation of Oil Effective Bulk Modulus With Pressure in Hydraulic Systems,” ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas. Control, 116(1), pp. 146–150. [CrossRef]
Manring, N. D., 2005, Hydraulic Control Systems, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Owen, W. S., and Croft, E. A., 2003, “The Reduction of Stick-Slip Friction in Hydraulic Actuators,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mech., 8(3), pp. 362–371. [CrossRef]
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Lazar, C., Caruntu, C. F., and Balau, A. E., 2010, “Modelling and Predictive Control of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuated Wet Clutch for Automatic Transmission,” IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Bari, Italy, July 4–7, pp. 256–261.
Goetz, M., 2005, “Integrated Powertrain Control for Twin Clutch Transmissions,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
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Wang, Y., Kraska, M., and Ortmann, W., 2001, “Dynamic Modeling of a Variable Force Solenoid and a Clutch for Hydraulic Control in Vehicle Transmission System,” Proceedings of American Control Conference, Arlington, VA, June 25–27, pp. 1789–1793.
Morselli, R., Zanasi, R., Cirsone, R., Sereni, E., Bedogni, E., and Sedoni, E., 2003, “Dynamic Modeling and Control of Electro-Hydraulic Wet Clutches,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Transaction Systems, Shanghai, China, Oct 12–15, Vol. 1, pp. 660–665.
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Song, X. Y., Sun, Z. X., Yang, X. J., and Zhu, G. M., 2010, “Modelling, Control, and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of an Automated Manual Transmission,” Proc. IMechE, Part D: J. Auto., 224(2), pp. 143–160. [CrossRef]
Watechagit, S., and Srinivasan, K., 2003, “Modeling and Simulation of Shift Hydraulic System for a Stepped Automatic Transmission,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2003-01-0314.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Section detail of the compact direct acting solenoid valve, with flow paths illustrated

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Fig. 2

Schematic of solenoid valve including damper

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Fig. 3

Force balance of solenoid spool

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Fig. 6

Valve and damper control volumes

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Fig. 5

Map of solenoid coil force, FM, (N) as a function of spool position and input current

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Fig. 8

Valve step response with a 0.6 A input. (a) Solenoid and feedback pressure forces, (b) pressure from input line, output line, and both feedback chambers, and (c) flow ranges for exhaust, input line, and to the clutch.

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Fig. 9

Valve step response with a 0.9 A input. (a) solenoid and feedback pressure forces, (b) pressure from input line, output line, and both feedback chambers, and (c) flow ranges for exhaust, input line, and to the clutch.

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Fig. 10

Step response to 1 A input signals with different input pressures

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Fig. 7

Clutch piston schematic model

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Fig. 16

Simulated and experimental responses for (a) 1 A and (b) 0.8 A step input currents

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Fig. 17

Pressure versus current curve for a 0–1 A ramp input, ramp rate 0.2 A/s

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Fig. 18

Pressure versus current curve for a 0–0.6 A ramp input, ramp rate 0.2 A/s

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Fig. 11

Step response to 1 A input signals under different percent air contents

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Fig. 12

Solenoid and pressure forces acting on the spool for a 0.6 step input

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Fig. 13

Transmission and hydraulic module used for in situ testing of the solenoid valve

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Fig. 14

Experimental setup for single clutch and solenoid assembly, (Short dash—solenoid valve control signal, Long dash—pressure sensor, blue hydraulic lines)

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Fig. 15

Experimental and simulated steady state pressures at different input currents

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