0
Research Papers

Transparency Improvement by External Force Estimation in a Time-Delayed Nonlinear Bilateral Teleoperation System

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Amini

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran;
Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing
and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-7967440, Malaysia
e-mail: hamidamini@aut.ac.ir

S. M. Rezaei

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran;
Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing
and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79673587, Malaysia
e-mail: smrezaei@aut.ac.ir

Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing
and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79674593, Malaysia
e-mail: ah_sarhan@um.edu.my

J. Akbari

Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79671104, Malaysia
e-mail: akbari@sharif.ir

N. A. Mardi

Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79677633, Malaysia
e-mail: azizim@um.edu.my

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received May 22, 2013; final manuscript received October 26, 2014; published online January 27, 2015. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 137(5), 051013 (May 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: DS-13-1209; doi: 10.1115/1.4029077 History: Received May 22, 2013; Revised October 26, 2014; Online January 27, 2015

Teleoperation systems have been developed in order to manipulate objects in environments where the presence of humans is impossible, dangerous or less effective. One of the most attractive applications is micro telemanipulation with micropositioning actuators. Due to the sensitivity of this operation, task performance should be accurately considered. The presence of force signals in the control scheme could effectively improve transparency. However, the main restriction is force measurement in micromanipulation scales. A new modified strategy for estimating the external forces acting on the master and slave robots is the major contribution of this paper. The main advantage of this strategy is that the necessity for force sensors is eliminated, leading to lower cost and further applicability. A novel control algorithm with estimated force signals is proposed for a general nonlinear macro–micro bilateral teleoperation system with time delay. The stability condition in the macro–micro teleoperation system with the new control algorithm is verified by means of Lyapunov stability analysis. The designed control algorithm guarantees stability of the macro–micro teleoperation system in the presence of an estimated operator and environmental force. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of the novel control algorithm in position tracking and force reflection.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Nakajima, Y., Nozaki, T., and Ohnishi, K., 2014, “Heart Beat Synchronization With Haptic Feedback for Telesurgical Robot,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 61(7), pp. 3753–3764. [CrossRef]
Kanehiro, F., Yoshida, E., and Yokoi, K., 2014, “Efficient Reaching Motion Planning Method for Low-Level Autonomy of Teleoperated Humanoid Robots,” Adv. Rob., 28(7), pp. 433–439. [CrossRef]
Lee, S.-J., Lee, S.-C., and Ahn, H.-S., 2014, “Design and Control of Tele-Matched Surgery Robot,” Mechatronics, 24(5), pp. 395–406. [CrossRef]
Wilde, M., Chua, Z. K., and Fleischner, A., 2014, “Effects of Multivantage Point Systems on the Teleoperation of Spacecraft Docking,” IEEE Trans. Hum. Mach. Systems., 44(2), pp. 200–210. [CrossRef]
Cobos-Guzman, S., Torres, J., and Lozano, R., 2013, “Design of an Underwater Robot Manipulator for a Telerobotic System,” Robotica., 31(6), pp. 945–953. [CrossRef]
Zareinejad, M., Rezaei, S. M., Abdullah, A., and Shiry Ghidary, S., 2009, “Development of a Piezo-Actuated Micro-Teleoperation System for Cell Manipulation,” Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assist Surg., 5(1), pp. 66–76. [CrossRef]
Son, H. I., Bhattacharjee, T., and Hashimoto, H., 2012, “Effect of Impedance-Shaping on Perception of Soft Tissues in Macro-Micro Teleoperation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 59(8), pp. 3273–3285. [CrossRef]
Khan, S., Sabanovic, A., and Nergiz, A. O., 2009, “Scaled Bilateral Teleoperation Using Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Controller,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 56(9), pp. 3609–3618. [CrossRef]
Seifabadi, R., Rezaei, S. M., Ghidary, S. S., and Zareinejad, M., 2013, “A Teleoperation System for Micro Positioning With Haptic Feedback,” Int. J. Control, Autom. Syst., 11(4), pp. 768–775. [CrossRef]
Bolopion, A., and Régnier, S., 2013, “A Review of Haptic Feedback Teleoperation Systems for Micromanipulation and Microassembly,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng., 10(3), pp. 496–502. [CrossRef]
Lee, D., and Spong, M. W., 2006, “Passive Bilateral Teleoperation With Constant Time Delay,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 22(2), pp. 269–281. [CrossRef]
Nuno, E., Ortega, R., Barabanov, N., and Basanez, L., 2008, “A Globally Stable PD Controller for Bilateral Teleoperators,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 24(3), pp. 753–758. [CrossRef]
Yoshida, K., and Namerikawa, T., 2008, “Predictive PD Control for Teleoperation With Communication Time Delay,” 17th World Congress, The International Federation of Automatic Control, Seoul, Korea, July 6–11, pp. 12703–12708.
Huang, K., and Lee, D., 2011, “Hybrid PD-Based Control Framework for Passive Bilateral Teleoperation Over the Internet,” 18th IFAC World Congress, Milan, Italy, Aug. 28–Sept. 2, pp. 1064–1069.
Ishii, T., and Katsura, S., 2012, “Bilateral Control With Local Force Feedback for Delay-Free Teleoperation,” International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, March 25–27, pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Park, J. H., and Cho, H. C., 2000, “Sliding Mode Control of Bilateral Teleoperation Systems With Force Reflection on the Internet,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Takamatsu, Oct. 31–Nov. 5, pp. 1187–1192. [CrossRef]
Ueda, J., and Yoshikawa, T., 2004, “Force-Reflecting Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay by Signal Filtering,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 20(3), pp. 613–619. [CrossRef]
Daly, J. M., and Wang, D. W. L., 2010, “Time-Delayed Bilateral Teleoperation With Force Estimation for n-DOF Nonlinear Robot Manipulator,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Control and Systems, Taipei, Oct. 18–22, pp. 3911–3918. [CrossRef]
Daly, J. M., and Wang, D. W. L., 2014, “Time-Delayed Output Feedback Bilateral Teleoperation With Force Estimation for n-DOF Nonlinear Manipulators,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 22(1), pp. 299–306. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S., 2010, “Synchronization of Teleoperation Systems Using State and Force Observer,” International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, Oct. 27–30, pp. 1362–1365.
Del Sol, E., King, R., Scott, R., and Ferre, M., 2014, “External Force Estimation for Teleoperation Based on Proprioceptive Sensors,” Int. J. Adv. Rob. Syst. [CrossRef]
Chen, W. H., Ballance, D. J., Gawthrop, P. J., and O’Reilly, J., 2000, “A Nonlinear Disturbance Observer for Robotic Manipulator,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 47(1), pp. 932–938. [CrossRef]
Mohammadi, A., Tavakoli, M., Marquez, H. J., and Hashemzadeh, F., 2013, “Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Design for Robotic Manipulators,” Control Eng. Pract., 21(3), pp. 253–267. [CrossRef]
Mohammadi, A., Marquez, H. J., and Tavakoli, M., 2011, “Disturbance Observer-Based Trajectory Following Control of Robotic Manipulator,” 23rd Can Cam, Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. 779–782.
Lichiardopol, S., van de Wouw, N., Kost, D., and Nijmeijer, H., 2010, “Trajectory Tracking Control for a Tele-Operation Setup With Disturbance Estimation and Compensation,” IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 15–17, pp. 1142–1147. [CrossRef]
Mohammadi, A., Tavakoli, M., and Marquez, H. J., 2011, “Disturbance Observer-Based Control of Nonlinear Haptic Teleoperation Systems,” IET Control Theory and Appl., 5(18), pp. 2063–2074. [CrossRef]
Khalil, H. K., 2002, Nonlinear Systems, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Hashemzadeh, F., Tavakoli, M., and Hassanzadeh, I., 2013, “Haptic Teleoperation Under Variable Delay and Actuator Saturation,” WHC, Daejeon, Korea, Apr. 14–17, pp. 377–382. [CrossRef]
Bashash, S., and Jalili, N., 2007, “Robust Multiple-Frequency Trajectory Tracking Control of Piezoelectrically-Driven Micro/Nano-Positioning Systems,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(3), pp. 867–878. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

P–P architecture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic figure of 1DOF teleoperation system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Simulation results without force signals: (a) position tracking and (b) force reflection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Master control input and (b) slave control input

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

P–P architecture + local external force signals

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Simulation results with local external force signals: (a) position tracking and (b) force reflection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Simulation results for position error

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Master control input and (b) slave control input

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

P–P architecture + global external force signals

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simulation results with force signals: (a) position tracking and (b) force reflection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Master control input and (b) slave control input

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The proposed controller structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The master robot and force sensor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The slave robot and force sensor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Second-order nonlinear dynamic model of the piezoelectric actuator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Inverse feedforward compensation of hysteresis effect

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Backlash operator with threshold r and weighting value wh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Summation of backlash operators

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Inverse feedforward compensation of hysteresis effect

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Overall block diagram of the proposed bilateral teleoperation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Experimental results with the absence of estimated forces: (a) position tracking q1 and (b) force reflection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Experimental results with the existence of estimated forces: (a) position tracking q1 and (b) force reflection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Experimental results with the existence of estimated forces: position tracking q3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Force estimation results: (a) human force estimation and (b) environmental force estimation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In