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Research Papers

Transparency Improvement by External Force Estimation in a Time-Delayed Nonlinear Bilateral Teleoperation System

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Amini

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran;
Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing
and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-7967440, Malaysia
e-mail: hamidamini@aut.ac.ir

S. M. Rezaei

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran;
Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing
and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79673587, Malaysia
e-mail: smrezaei@aut.ac.ir

Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing
and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79674593, Malaysia
e-mail: ah_sarhan@um.edu.my

J. Akbari

Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79671104, Malaysia
e-mail: akbari@sharif.ir

N. A. Mardi

Department of Engineering Design
and Manufacture,
Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing—Micro Mechanism Research Group,
University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur 603-79677633, Malaysia
e-mail: azizim@um.edu.my

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received May 22, 2013; final manuscript received October 26, 2014; published online January 27, 2015. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 137(5), 051013 (May 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: DS-13-1209; doi: 10.1115/1.4029077 History: Received May 22, 2013; Revised October 26, 2014; Online January 27, 2015

Teleoperation systems have been developed in order to manipulate objects in environments where the presence of humans is impossible, dangerous or less effective. One of the most attractive applications is micro telemanipulation with micropositioning actuators. Due to the sensitivity of this operation, task performance should be accurately considered. The presence of force signals in the control scheme could effectively improve transparency. However, the main restriction is force measurement in micromanipulation scales. A new modified strategy for estimating the external forces acting on the master and slave robots is the major contribution of this paper. The main advantage of this strategy is that the necessity for force sensors is eliminated, leading to lower cost and further applicability. A novel control algorithm with estimated force signals is proposed for a general nonlinear macro–micro bilateral teleoperation system with time delay. The stability condition in the macro–micro teleoperation system with the new control algorithm is verified by means of Lyapunov stability analysis. The designed control algorithm guarantees stability of the macro–micro teleoperation system in the presence of an estimated operator and environmental force. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of the novel control algorithm in position tracking and force reflection.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

P–P architecture

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Fig. 2

Schematic figure of 1DOF teleoperation system

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Fig. 3

Simulation results without force signals: (a) position tracking and (b) force reflection

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Fig. 4

(a) Master control input and (b) slave control input

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Fig. 5

P–P architecture + local external force signals

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Fig. 6

Simulation results with local external force signals: (a) position tracking and (b) force reflection

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Fig. 7

Simulation results for position error

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Fig. 8

(a) Master control input and (b) slave control input

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Fig. 9

P–P architecture + global external force signals

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Fig. 10

Simulation results with force signals: (a) position tracking and (b) force reflection

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Fig. 11

(a) Master control input and (b) slave control input

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Fig. 12

The proposed controller structure

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Fig. 13

The master robot and force sensor

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Fig. 14

The slave robot and force sensor

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Fig. 15

Second-order nonlinear dynamic model of the piezoelectric actuator

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Fig. 16

Inverse feedforward compensation of hysteresis effect

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Fig. 17

Backlash operator with threshold r and weighting value wh

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Fig. 18

Summation of backlash operators

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Fig. 19

Inverse feedforward compensation of hysteresis effect

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Fig. 20

Overall block diagram of the proposed bilateral teleoperation

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Fig. 21

Experimental results with the absence of estimated forces: (a) position tracking q1 and (b) force reflection

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Fig. 22

Experimental results with the existence of estimated forces: (a) position tracking q1 and (b) force reflection

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Fig. 23

Experimental results with the existence of estimated forces: position tracking q3

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Fig. 24

Force estimation results: (a) human force estimation and (b) environmental force estimation

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