This paper addresses the problem of observer-based fault reconstruction and accommodation for polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems. A polytopic representation of an LPV system subject to actuator faults and external disturbances is first established; then, a novel polytopic learning unknown-input observer (LUIO) is constructed for simultaneous state estimation and robust fault reconstruction. The stability of the presented LUIO is proved using Lyapunov stability theory together with H∞ techniques. Further, using reconstructed fault information, a reconfigurable fault-tolerant controller is designed to compensate for the influence of actuator faults by stabilizing the closed-loop system. At last, an aircraft example is employed to illustrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed techniques.