Research Papers

Optimal Trajectory Planning of Motor Torque and Clutch Slip Speed for Gear Shift of a Two-Speed Electric Vehicle

[+] Author and Article Information
Bingzhao Gao, Qiong Liang, Lulu Guo

State Key Laboratory
of Automotive Simulation and Control,
Jilin University,
Changchun 130025, China

Yu Xiang

State Key Laboratory
of Automotive Simulation and Control,
Jilin University,
Changchun 130025, China;
Dongfeng Honda Automobile Co., Ltd.,
Wuhan 430056, China

Hong Chen

State Key Laboratory
of Automotive Simulation and Control,
Jilin University,
Changchun 130025, China;
Department of Control Science
and Engineering,
Jilin University,
Changchun 130025, China
e-mail: chenh@jlu.edu.cn

1 Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received May 26, 2014; final manuscript received December 16, 2014; published online February 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 137(6), 061016 (Jun 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: DS-14-1224; doi: 10.1115/1.4029469 History: Received May 26, 2014; Revised December 16, 2014; Online February 04, 2015

In order to improve the shift quality of a two-speed inverse automated manual transmission (I-AMT) of electric vehicle (EV), optimal control is used to generate the reference trajectories of the clutch slip speed and motor torque. The offline optimization results are fitted and used for online implementation. In order to compensate the disturbances and modeling errors, a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is added to ensure the closed-loop control performance. The proposed controller is almost free of calibration effort, because the feedforward part of the proposed controller considered the simple but dominant system dynamics. Finally, the control algorithm is confirmed through large amounts of tests on a complete powertrain simulation model, and the designed controller can provide satisfactory performance even under large variation of vehicle mass and road grade.

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Fig. 1

The structure diagram of powertrain system

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Fig. 2

The simplified diagram of upshift process in conditions of constant torque demand

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Fig. 3

The optimal controller

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Fig. 4

Offline calculation results of optimal controller. Accelerator pedal β = 25%.

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Fig. 5

Offline calculation results of optimal controller. Accelerator pedal β = 50%.

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Fig. 6

Offline calculation results of optimal controller. Accelerator pedal β = 100%.

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Fig. 7

Normalized fitting curve of motor torque and clutch speed difference. t25, t50, t75, and t100 are the simulation time of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% acceleration demand, respectively.

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Fig. 8

The feedforward and feedback controller. β is the opening of the accelerator pedal; Δω0 is the clutch speed difference at the beginning of the inertia phase; and Tm_ref and Δωref are obtained from the offline calculation results of the optimal controller.

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Fig. 9

Simulation results β = 50%, M = 1500 kg, and α = 0. ω1 is the first driving gear speed; Ts is the torque from synchronizer; and Tout is the transmission output torque. (proposed controller)

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Fig. 10

Simulation results β = 50%, M = 1500 kg, and α = 0 (PID controller [23])

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Fig. 11

Simulation results β = 50%, M = 1500 kg, and α = 0

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Fig. 12

Simulation results β = 25%, M = 1500 kg, and α = 0 (proposed controller)

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Fig. 13

Simulation results β = 100%, M = 1500 kg, and α = 0 (proposed controller)

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Fig. 14

Simulation results β = 50%, M = 1800 kg, and α = 5 deg (proposed controller)




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