Reduced-order observer design methods for both linear and nonlinear discrete-time descriptor systems based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach are investigated. We conclude that the conditions under which a full-order observer exists can also guarantee the existence of a reduced-order observer. By choosing a special reduced-order observer gain matrix, a reduced-order unknown input observer is proposed for linear system with unknown inputs, and then an unknown input reconstruction is provided for some special cases. We also extend above results to the cases of nonlinear systems. Finally, three numerical comparative simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and merits of proposed methods.