0
Research Papers

Coordinated Control of Autonomous Four Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles for Platooning and Trajectory Tracking Using a Hierarchical Architecture

[+] Author and Article Information
Jinghua Guo

State Key Laboratory
of Automotive Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: guojing_0701@live.cn

Keqiang Li

State Key Laboratory
of Automotive Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: likq@tsinghua.edu.cn

Yugong Luo

State Key Laboratory
of Automotive Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: lyg@tsinghua.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received March 26, 2014; final manuscript received May 6, 2015; published online July 1, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 137(10), 101001 (Oct 01, 2015) (18 pages) Paper No: DS-14-1140; doi: 10.1115/1.4030720 History: Received March 26, 2014; Revised May 06, 2015; Online July 01, 2015

This paper presents a systematic method on how to design the coordinated lateral and longitudinal motion control system of autonomous four wheel drive (4WD) electric vehicles for platooning and trajectory tracking. First, mathematical models that perfectly describe the behaviors of autonomous 4WD vehicles are built-up, and the coupled effects in vehicle dynamic systems are given. Second, owing to the fact that autonomous vehicles are large-scale systems with strong coupling, nonlinearities, and uncertainties, a novel multi-objective hierarchical architecture used for coordinated lateral and longitudinal motion control is constructed, which is composed of a global cooperative control layer, a control allocation layer, and an action execution layer. A robust backstepping sliding mode controller (RBSMC) is presented in the cooperative control layer to provide the resultant forces/moment. The control allocation layer is designed using interior-point (IP) algorithm to determine the tire lateral and longitudinal forces, which result in the desired resultant forces/moment. The action execution layer consists of an inverse tire model, a slip ratio regulator for each wheel, and a slip angle regulator. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out under adverse driving conditions, and the results show that the proposed control architecture not only possesses excellent tracking performance but also enhances the riding comfort, stability, and safety of autonomous 4WD electric vehicles.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Keqiang, L., Tao, C., Yugong, L., and Jianqiang, W., 2012, “Intelligent Environment-Friendly Vehicles: Concept and Case Studies,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 13(1), pp. 318–328. [CrossRef]
Marino, R., Scalzi, S., and Netto, M., 2011, “Nest PID Steering Control for Lane Keeping in Autonomous Vehicles,” Control Eng. Pract., 19(12), pp. 1459–1467. [CrossRef]
Raimondi, F. M., and Melluso, M., 2008, “Fuzzy Motion Control Strategy for Cooperation of Multiple Automated Vehicles With Passengers comfort,” Automatica, 44(11), pp. 2804–2816. [CrossRef]
Wu, S., Chiang, H., and Perng, J., 2008, “The Heterogeneous Systems Integration Design and Implementation for Lane Keeping on a Vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 9(2), pp. 246–263. [CrossRef]
Jinghua, G., Ping, H., Linhui, L., and Rongben, W., 2012, “Design of Automatic Steering Controller for Trajectory Tracking of Unmanned Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 61(7), pp. 2913–2924. [CrossRef]
Onieva, E., Naranjo, J. E., and Milanes, V., 2011, “Automatic Lateral Control for Unmanned Vehicles Via Genetic Algorithms,” Appl. Soft Comput., 11(1), pp. 1303–1309. [CrossRef]
Thrun, S., Montemerlo, M., and Dahlkamp, H., 2006, “Stanley: The Robot That Won the DARPA Grand Challenge,” J. Field Robot., 23(9), pp. 661–692. [CrossRef]
Tan, H. S., Bu, F., and Bougler, B., 2007, “A Real-World Application of Lane-Guidance Technologies Automated Snowblower,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 8(3), pp. 538–548. [CrossRef]
Rajamani, R., Zhu, C., and Alexander, L., 2003, “Lateral of a Backward Driven Front-Steering Vehicle,” Control Eng. Pract., 11(5), pp. 531–540. [CrossRef]
Huang, J., and Tomizuka, M., 2005, “LTV Controller Design for Vehicle Lateral Control Under Fault in Rear Sensors,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 10(1), pp. 1–7.
Falcone, P., Borrelli, F., Asgari, J., Tseng, H., and Hrovat, D., 2007, “Predictive Active Steering Control for Autonomous Vehicle Systems,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(3), pp. 566–580. [CrossRef]
Perez, J., Milanes, V., and Onieva, E., 2011, “Cascade Architecture for Lateral Control in Autonomous Vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 12(1), pp. 73–82. [CrossRef]
Enache, N., Mammar, S., Netto, M., and Lusetti, B., 2010, “Driver Steering Assistance for Lane-Departure Avoidance Based on Hybrid Automata and Composite Lyapunov Function,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 11(1), pp. 28–39. [CrossRef]
Gerdes, J. C., and Hedrick, J. K., 1997, “Vehicle Speed and Spacing Control Via Coordinated Throttle and Brake Actuation,” Control Eng. Pract., 5(11), pp. 1607–1614. [CrossRef]
Ferrara, A., and Vecchio, C., 2009, “Second Order Sliding Mode Control of Vehicles With Distributed Collision Avoidance Capabilities,” Mechatronics, 19(4), pp. 471–477. [CrossRef]
Nouveliere, L., and Mammar, S., 2007, “Experimental Vehicle Longitudinal Control Using a Second Order Sliding Mode Technique,” Control Eng. Pract., 15(8), pp. 943–954. [CrossRef]
Ping, H., Jinghua, G., Linhui, L., and Rongben, W., 2013, “A Robust Longitudinal Sliding-Mode Controller Design for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Logic,” Int. J. Veh. Auton. Syst., 11(4), pp. 368–383. [CrossRef]
Toulotte, P. F., Delprat, S., Guerra, T. M., and Boonaert, J., 2008, “Vehicle Spacing Control Using Robust Fuzzy Control With Pole Placement in LMI Region,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intel., 21(5), pp. 756–768. [CrossRef]
Peng, Y. F., 2010, “Adaptive Intelligent Backstepping Longitudinal Lontrol of Vehicle Platoons Using Output Recurrent Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller,” Expert Syst. Appl., 37(3), pp. 2016–2027. [CrossRef]
Jianqiang, W., Lei, Z., Dezhao, Z., and Keqiang, L., 2013, “An Adaptive Longitudinal Driving Assistance System Based on Driver Characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 14(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Feng, G., and Keqiang, L., 2007, “Hierarchical Switching Control of Longitudinal Acceleration With Large Uncertainties,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 8(3), pp. 351–359.
Lefebvre, D., Chevrel, P., and Richard, S., 2003, “An H-Infinity-Based Control Design Methodology Dedicated to the Active Control of Vehicle Longitudinal Oscillations,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 11(6), pp. 948–955. [CrossRef]
Bakker, E., Nyborg, L., and Pacejka, H. B., 1989, “A New Tire Model With an Application in Vehicle Dynamics Studies,” SAE Technical Paper No. 890087.
Lim, E. H. M., and Hedrick, J. K., 1999, “Lateral and Longitudinal Vehicle Control Coupling for Automated Vehicle Operation,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference, San Diego, CA, Jun 2–4, pp. 3676–3680.
Rajamani, R., Tan, H. S., Law, B. K., and Zhang, W., 2000, “Demonstration of Integrated Longitudinal and Lateral Control for the Operation of Automated Vehicles in Platoons,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 8(4), pp. 695–708. [CrossRef]
Lee, H., and Tomizuka, M., 2001, “Coordinated Longitudinal and Lateral Motion Control of Vehicles for IVHS,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 123(3), pp. 535–543. [CrossRef]
Kumarawadu, S., and Lee, T. T., 2006, “Neuroadaptive Combined Lateral and Longitudinal Control of Highway Using RBF Networks,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 7(4), pp. 500–511. [CrossRef]
Rajamani, R., 2006, Vehicle Dynamics and Control, Springer, Berlin.
Dugoff, H., Francher, P. S., and Segel, L., 1970, “An Analysis of Tire Traction Properties and Their Influence on Vehicle Dynamic Performance,” SAE Technical Paper No. 700377.
Guntur, R., and Sankar, S., 1980, “A Friction Circle Concept for Dugoff’s Tire Friction Model,” Int. J. Veh. Des., 1(4), pp. 373–377.
Krstic, M., Kanellakopoulos, I., and Kokotovic, P., 1995, Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design, Wiley, New York.
Ola, H., and Glad, S. T., 2005, “Resolving Actuator Redundancy-Optimal Control Vs Control Allocation,” Automatica, 41(1), pp. 137–144.
Wang, J., and Longoria, R. G., 2009, “Coordinated and Reconfigurable Vehicle Dynamics Control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 17(3), pp. 723–732. [CrossRef]
Petersen, J., and Bodson, M., 2006, “Constrained Quadratic Programming Techniques for Control Allocation,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 14(1), pp. 91–98. [CrossRef]
Ahmadi, J., Sedigh, A. K., and Kabganian, M., 2009, “Adaptive Vehicle Lateral-Plane Motion Control Using Optimal Tire Friction Forces With Saturation Limits Consideration,” IEEE. Trans. Veh. Technol., 58(8), pp. 4098–4107. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of vehicle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Tire forces coupling under inequality constraint: (a) at slip ratio = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 and (b) at slip angle = 2 deg, 4 deg, 6 deg, and 8 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Tire coupling under saturated constraint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The response of tire forces with various normal forces: (a) lateral force and (b) longitudinal force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Coupled relationship among lateral, longitudinal, and yaw motions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Multi-objective hierarchical architecture for coordinated control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Response results with various torques: (a) lateral velocity, (b) longitudinal velocity, and (c) yaw rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Response results with various front-wheel steering angle: (a) lateral velocity, (b) longitudinal velocity, and (c) yaw rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Relative location of vehicle-to-vehicle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Relative location of vehicle-to-road

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Equivalent inequality constraints

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Desired preceding velocity and acceleration in braking case: (a) desired preceding velocity and (b) curvature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Desired preceding velocity and acceleration in uncertainties: (a) desired preceding velocity and (b) curvature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The profile of reference path

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Desired preceding velocity and acceleration in driving case: (a) desired preceding velocity and (b) desired preceding acceleration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Simulation results: (a) lateral error, (b) angular error, (c) longitudinal error, (d) lateral velocity, (e) sideslip angle, and (f) yaw rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Desired tire forces provided by the control allocation layer: (a) Front left tire (FL) force, (b) Front right tire (FR) force, (c) Rear left tire (RL) force, and (d) Rear right tire (RR) force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparisons of the desired and actual tire slip ratios: (a) FL slip ratio, (b) FR slip ratio, (c) RL slip ratio, and (d) RR slip ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparisons of the desired and actual tire slip angles: (a) FL slip ratio and (b) FR slip ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Simulation results: (a) lateral error, (b) angular error, (c) longitudinal error, and (d) yaw rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Simulation results: (a) lateral error, (b) angular error, (c) longitudinal error, and (d) yaw rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Simulation results: (a) lateral error, (b) angular error, (c) longitudinal error, (d) lateral velocity, (e) sideslip angle, and (f) yaw rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Desired tire forces provided by the control allocation layer: (a) FL force, (b) FR force, (c) RL force, and (d) RR force

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In