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Research Papers

Optimizing Tire Vertical Stiffness Based on Ride, Handling, Performance, and Fuel Consumption Criteria

[+] Author and Article Information
Amir Soltani

Department of Mechanics,
Faculty of Engineering,
Islamic Azad University,
Hamedan Branch,
Hamedan 65181-15743, Iran
e-mail: amir.soltani@uwaterloo.ca

Avesta Goodarzi

Department of Mechanical
and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: avesta.goodarzi@uwaterloo.ca

Mohamad Hasan Shojaeefard

Automotive Engineering Department,
Iran University of Science & Technology,
Tehran 16846-13114, Iran
e-mail: mhshf@iust.ac.ir

Khodabakhsh Saeedi

Department of Mechanical
and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: kb.saeedi@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 20, 2014; final manuscript received August 3, 2015; published online September 22, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 137(12), 121004 (Sep 22, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-14-1087; doi: 10.1115/1.4031459 History: Received February 20, 2014; Revised August 03, 2015

Researchers mostly focus on the role of suspension system characteristics on vehicle dynamics. However tire characteristics are also influential on the vehicle dynamics behavior. In this paper, the effects of tire vertical stiffness on the ride, handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption of a vehicle are analytically investigated. Furthermore, a method for determining the optimum vertical stiffness of tires is presented. For these purposes, first an appropriate mathematical criterion for the ride, handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption is developed. Next, to achieve the optimum tire characteristic, a performance index, which contains all of the above-mentioned criteria, is defined and optimized. In the proposed performance index, the tire vertical stiffness is a design variable and its optimization provides a compromise among ride, handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption of the vehicle. Last, the analytical optimization results are confirmed by performing precise numerical simulations.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Quarter-car model configuration

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Fig. 2

Acceleration transmissibility versus excitation frequency for different tire stiffness

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Fig. 3

RMS of sprung mass vertical acceleration: (a) Low frequency range and (b) high frequency range

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Fig. 4

Cornering coefficient versus tire vertical stiffness

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Fig. 5

Longitudinal slip stiffness versus tire vertical stiffness

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Fig. 6

Rolling resistance coefficient as a function of tire vertical stiffness

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Fig. 7

The evaluation function (EF) versus tire vertical stiffness

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Fig. 8

Radar chart of the optimum tire vertical stiffness

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Fig. 9

Lateral force versus side slip angle for different tires

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Fig. 10

Longitudinal force versus slip ratio for different tires

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Fig. 11

Simulation results for ride test on the sinusoidal road: (a) Low frequency and (b) high frequency

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Fig. 12

Path of the vehicles during double lane change test

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Fig. 13

Vehicle handling responses during double lane change test: (a) Yaw velocity, (b) lateral acceleration, and (c) Vehicle slip angle

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Fig. 14

Vehicle longitudinal velocity versus time during braking test

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Fig. 15

Vehicle longitudinal velocity versus time during braking test

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Fig. 16

Longitudinal velocity of vehicles versus time during coast down test

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