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Research Papers

Efficient Exhaustive Search of Power-Split Hybrid Powertrains With Multiple Planetary Gears and Clutches

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaowu Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: xiaowuz@umich.edu

Shengbo Eben Li

State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California, Berkeley,
Berkeley, CA 94720

Huei Peng

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109;
State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Jing Sun

Department of Naval Architecture
and Marine Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received January 5, 2015; final manuscript received August 21, 2015; published online September 23, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 137(12), 121006 (Sep 23, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1007; doi: 10.1115/1.4031533 History: Received January 05, 2015; Revised August 21, 2015

Planetary gear (PG) power-split hybrid powertrains have been used in producing hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles from the Toyota, General Motor, and Ford for years. Some of the most recent designs use clutches to enable multiple operating modes to improve launching performance and/or fuel economy. Adding clutches and multiple operating modes, however, also increases production cost and design complexity. To enable an exhaustive but fast search for optimal designs among a large number of hardware configurations, clutch locations, and mode selections, an automated modeling and screening process is developed in this paper. Combining this process with the power-weighted efficiency analysis for rapid sizing method (PEARS), an optimal and computationally efficient energy management strategy, the extremely large design space of configuration, component sizing, and control becomes feasible to search through. This methodology to identify optimal designs has yet to be reported in the literature. A case study to evaluate the proposed methodology uses the configuration adopted in the Toyota Hybrid Synergy (THS-II) system used in the Prius model year 2010 and the Hybrid Camry. Two designs are investigated to compare with the simulated Prius design: one uses all possible operating modes; and the other uses a suboptimal design that limits the number of clutches to three.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

All 16 possible clutch locations for a double PG system

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Fig. 1

PG and its lever analogy

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Fig. 3

The lever diagram of THS-II

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Fig. 6

The PEARS + process

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Fig. 5

The simulink diagram of a general multimode HEV powertrain system

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Fig. 8

Lever diagram of the Prius 2010++

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Fig. 7

Power flow in the hybrid mode

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Fig. 9

Trajectories of DP in the FUDS cycle

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Fig. 10

Trajectories of PEARS+ in the FUDS cycle

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Fig. 13

Optimal modes used in the FUDS and HWFET cycles

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Fig. 14

The mode types and usage frequency (percentage of time each mode type is used) of the Utopian design

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Fig. 15

The mode shift and acceleration profile of the Utopian design

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Fig. 11

Two types of configurations

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Fig. 12

All feasible and nonredundant modes for the configuration used in Prius 2010, grouped into 14 mode types

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Fig. 18

The mode types and usage frequency of the suboptimal design for fuel economy

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Fig. 19

The mode types and usage frequency of the suboptimal design for drivability

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Fig. 16

Optimization results comparing three-clutch designs and the benchmarks

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Fig. 17

Lever diagrams of the two suboptimal designs selected in Fig. 16

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