An analytical design for proportional integral derivative (PID) controller cascaded with a fractional-order filter is proposed for first-order unstable processes with time delay. The design algorithm is based on the internal model control (IMC) paradigm. A two degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) control structure is used to improve the performance of the closed-loop system. In the 2DOF control structure, an integer order controller is used to stabilize the inner-loop, and a fractional-order controller for the stabilized system is employed to improve the performance of the closed-loop system. The Walton–Marshall's method, which is applicable to quasi-polynomials, is then used to establish the internal stability condition of the closed-loop system (the fractional part of the controller in particular) and to seek the set of stabilizing proportional (P) or proportional-derivative (PD) controller parameters.