This paper deals with an adaptive nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) based estimator in cases of mismatch modeling, presence of perturbations and/or parameter variations. Thus, we propose an adaptive nonlinear predictive controller based on the second-order divided difference filter (DDF) for multivariable systems. The controller uses a nonlinear state-space model for parameters and state estimation and for the control law synthesis. Two nonlinear optimization layers are included in the proposed algorithm. The first optimization problem is based on the output error (OE) model with a tuning factor, and it is dedicated to minimize the error between the model and the system at each sample time by estimating unknown parameters when assuming that all system states are available. The second optimization layer is used by the centralized nonlinear predictive controller to generate the control law which minimizes the error between future setpoints and future outputs along the prediction horizon. The proposed algorithm leads to a good tracking performance with an offset-free output and an effectiveness in perturbation attenuation. Practical results on a real setup show the reliability of the proposed approach.