0
Research Papers

On the Regenerative Capabilities of Electrodynamic Dampers Using Bond Graphs and Model Predictive Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Layne Clemen

Hyundai Center of Excellence in Vehicle
Dynamic Systems and Control,
Department of Mechanical and
Aeronautical Engineering,
University of California,
Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: laclemen@ucdavis.edu

Olugbenga Moses Anubi

GE Global Research Center,
Niskayuna, NY 12309
e-mail: anubimoses@gmail.com

Donald Margolis

Professor
Hyundai Center of Excellence in Vehicle
Dynamic Systems and Control,
Department of Mechanical and
Aeronautical Engineering,
University of California,
Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: dlmargolis@ucdavis.edu

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received June 16, 2015; final manuscript received December 14, 2015; published online March 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Fu-Cheng Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 138(5), 051006 (Mar 10, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1276; doi: 10.1115/1.4032505 History: Received June 16, 2015; Revised December 14, 2015

There is a constant interest in the performance capabilities of active suspensions without the associated shortcomings of degraded fuel economy. To this effect, electrodynamic dampers are currently being researched as a means to approach the performance of a fully active suspension with minimal or no energy consumption. This paper investigates the regenerative capabilities of these dampers during fully active operation for a range of controller types—emphasizing road holding, ride, and energy regeneration. A model of an electrodynamic suspension is developed using bond graphs. Two model predictive controllers (MPCs) are constructed: standard and frequency-weighted MPCs. The resulting controlled system is subjected to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) roads A–D and the results are presented. For all of the standard MPC weightings, the suspension was able to recover more energy than is required to run the suspension actively. All of the results for optimal energy regeneration occurred on the standard Pareto tradeoff curve for ride comfort and road holding. Frequency weighting the controller increased suspension performance while also regenerating 3–12% more energy than the standard MPC.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Clemen, L. , and Margolis, D. , 2014, “ Modeling and Control of a Quarter Car Electrodynamic Air-Suspension,” International Conference on Bond Graph Modeling, Monterey, CA, July 6–10, pp. 27–33.
Mehra, R. , Amin, J. , Hedrick, K. , Osorio, C. , and Gopalasamy, S. , 1997, “ Active Suspension Using Preview Information and Model Predictive Control,” IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Hartford, CT, Oct. 5–7, pp. 860–865.
Giorgetti, N. , Bemporad, A. , Tseng, H. E. , and Hrovat, D. , 2006, “ Hybrid Model Predictive Control Application Towards Optimal Semi-Active Suspension,” Int. J. Control, 79(5), pp. 521–533. [CrossRef]
Canale, M. , Milanese, M. , Member, S. , and Novara, C. , 2006, “ Semi-Active Suspension Control Using ‘Fast’ Model-Predictive Techniques,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 14(6), pp. 1034–1046. [CrossRef]
Clemen, L. , Anubi, O. M. , and Margolis, D. , 2014, “ Model Predictive Control of Regenerative Dampers With Acceleration and Energy Harvesting Trade-Offs,” 12th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 22–26.
Huang, K. , Yu, F. , and Zhang, Y. , 2011, “ Active Controller Design for an Electromagnetic Energy-Regenerative Suspension,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 12(6), pp. 877–885. [CrossRef]
Iorio, F. , and Casavola, A. , 2012, “ A Multiobjective H ∞ Control Strategy for Energy Harvesting While Damping for Regenerative Vehicle Suspension Systems,” American Control Conference (ACC), Montréal, Canada, June 27–29, pp. 491–496.
Karnopp, D. C. , Margolis, D. L. , and Rosenberg, R. C. , 2012, System Dynamics: Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Mechatronic Systems, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Packer, J. , Clemen, L. , and Karnopp, D. , “ Sensitivity Analysis for an Electrodynamic Actuator System,” (to be published).
Anaheim Automation, 2015, “ BLK42 Series—Brushless DC Motors,” Anaheim Automation, Inc., Anaheim, CA, https://www.anaheimautomation.com/manuals/brush-less/L010749%20-%20BLK42%20Series%20Spec-%20Sheet.pdf
Phillips, C. L. , and Nagle, H. T. , 2007, Digital Control System Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall Press, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Hrovat, D. , 1997, “ Survey of Advanced Suspension Developments and Related Optimal Control Applications,” Automatica, 33(10), pp. 1781–1817. [CrossRef]
Maciejowski, J. M. , 1989, Multivariable Feedback Design (Electronic Systems Engineering Series), Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, UK.
Borrelli, F. , 2003, Constrained Optimal Control of Linear and Hybrid Systems, Vol. 290, Springer, New York.
Anubi, O. M. , and Clemen, L. , 2015, “ Energy-Regenerative Model Predictive Control,” J. Franklin Inst., 352(5), pp. 2152–2170. [CrossRef]
Gupta, N. K. , 1980, “ Frequency-Shaped Cost Functionals—Extension of Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Design Methods,” J. Guid., Control, Dyn., 3(6), pp. 529–535. [CrossRef]
Zuo, L. , and Nayfeh, S. , 2003, “ Low Order Continuous-Time Filters for Approximation of the ISO 2631-1 Human Vibration Sensitivity Weightings,” J. Sound Vib., 265(2), pp. 459–465. [CrossRef]
Kvasnica, M. , Grieder, P. , Baotić, M. , and Morari, M. , 2004, “ Multi-Parametric Toolbox (MPT),” Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, Springer, Berlin, pp. 448–462.
Agostinacchio, M. , Ciampa, D. , and Olita, S. , 2013, “ The Vibrations Induced by Surface Irregularities in Road Pavements—A MATLAB® Approach,” Eur. Transp. Res. Rev., 6(3), pp. 267–275. [CrossRef]
Williams, D. E. , and Haddad, W. M. , 1997, “ Active Suspension Control to Improve Vehicle Ride and Handling,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 28(1), pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Electrodynamic actuator diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Electrodynamic actuator bond graph

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Quarter-car model with electrodynamic damper

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Total system bond graph

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Electrodynamic damper regenerative capabilities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Ride comfort and road holding projection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Frequency-weighted active suspension regenerative capabilities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Frequency-weighted ride comfort and road holding projection

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In