In this paper, a novel direct adaptive fuzzy moving sliding mode proportional integral (PI) tracking control of a three-dimensional (3D) overhead crane which is modeled by five highly nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations is proposed. The fast and robust position regulation and antiswing control can be achieved based on the proposed approach. Due to universal approximation theorem, fuzzy control provides nonlinear controller, i.e., fuzzy logic controllers, to perform the unknown nonlinear control actions. Simultaneously, in order to achieve fast and robust regulation and to enhance robustness in the presence of disturbance and parameter variations, moving sliding mode control (SMC) is introduced to tradeoff between reaching phase and sliding phase. Hence, the sliding surface is moved by changing the magnitude of the slope by adaptive law and varying the intercept by tuning algorithm. Simulations performed using a scaled 3D mathematical model of the crane confirm that the proposed control scheme can keep the horizontal position of the payload invariable and suppress the swing of the payload effectively during the hoisting or lowing process.