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Research Papers

Design of a Passive Upper Limb Exoskeleton for Macaque Monkeys

[+] Author and Article Information
Junkai Lu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: junkai.lu@berkeley.edu

Kevin Haninger

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: khaninger@berkeley.edu

Wenjie Chen

FANUC Corporation,
Oshino-mura, Yamanashi
Prefecture 401-0597, Japan
e-mail: wjchen@berkeley.edu

Suraj Gowda

Department of Electrical Engineering
and Computer Sciences,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: surajgowda@berkeley.edu

Masayoshi Tomizuka

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: tomizuka@me.berkeley.edu

Jose M. Carmena

Department of Electrical Engineering
and Computer Sciences,
Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: jcarmena@berkeley.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 6, 2015; final manuscript received April 27, 2016; published online July 27, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Hashem Ashrafiuon.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 138(11), 111011 (Jul 27, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1619; doi: 10.1115/1.4033837 History: Received December 06, 2015; Revised April 27, 2016

Integrating an exoskeleton as the external apparatus for a brain–machine interface (BMI) has the advantage of providing multiple contact points to determine body segment postures and allowing control to and feedback from each joint. When using macaques as subjects to study the neural control of movement, an upper limb exoskeleton design with unlikely singularity is required to guarantee safe and accurate tracking of joint angles over all possible range of motion (ROM). Additionally, the compactness of the design is of more importance considering macaques have significantly smaller body dimensions than humans. This paper proposes a six degree-of-freedom (DOF) passive upper limb exoskeleton with 4DOFs at the shoulder complex. System kinematic analysis is investigated in terms of its singularity and manipulability. A real-time data acquisition system is set up, and system kinematic calibration is conducted. The effectiveness of the proposed exoskeleton system is finally demonstrated by a pilot animal test in the scenario of a reach and grasp task.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Joints located at the shoulder complex [7]

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Fig. 2

Two rotation conventions for the glenohumeral joint model: (a) flexion–abduction–rotation and (b) azimuth–elevation–roll

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Fig. 3

Overview of the designed 3D BMI task for a macaque subject

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Fig. 4

Mechanical models of the upper limb joints: (a) ball-and-socket joint model, (b) hinge joint model, and (c) pivot joint model

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Fig. 5

Left: computer-aided design (CAD) model with coordinate frames in exoskeleton home posture. Middle: simplified joint model. Right: physical hardware design implementation.

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Fig. 6

CAD design of two types of joints: (a) joint type I and (b) joint type II

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Fig. 7

Singular posture of the proposed 4DOF shoulder complex model

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Fig. 8

Illustration of a motion sequence leading to the singular shoulder joint configuration

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Fig. 9

Top view of macaque on the transverse plane. Macaque is plotted with its shoulder joint center fixed and its elbow as the end point.

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Fig. 10

Manipulability distributions of four models on the horizontal plane: (a) IKO model, (b) (CADEN)-7 model, (c) MEDARM model, and (d) the proposed model

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Fig. 11

Illustration of synchronized data acquisition of the exoskeleton system and the motion capture system

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Fig. 12

Block diagram of the calibration algorithm

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Fig. 13

Sampled marker positions in the camera frame for reference data and generated data (a) before and (b) after calibration

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Fig. 14

Position errors of both training and cross-validation datasets

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Fig. 15

Experiment scene of a macaque wearing the proposed exoskeleton

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Fig. 16

Joint space trajectory of the reach–grasp–feed task for one trial

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Fig. 17

Task space trajectory of the macaque palm for one trial. The palm was initially placed on the primate table, and the macaque started to reach the food, grasped, and fed itself when some food was placed in front of it, and finally placed its palm back on the table. The coordinate system O0x0y0z0 follows the convention in Fig. 5, and the macaque sat facing the positive direction of the y0 axis.

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Fig. 18

Normalized manipulability metric of the shoulder joint for six trials within 150 s

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