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Research Papers

A Nonlinearly Broadband Tuneable Energy Harvester

[+] Author and Article Information
Tanju Yildirim, Gursel Alici

School of Mechanical,
Materials and Mechatronic Engineering,
University of Wollongong,
New South Wales 2522, Australia

Mergen H. Ghayesh

School of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Adelaide,
South Australia 5005, Australia
e-mail: mergen.ghayesh@adelaide.edu.au

Weihua Li

School of Mechanical,
Materials and Mechatronic Engineering,
University of Wollongong,
New South Wales 2522, Australia
e-mail: weihuali@uow.edu.au

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received October 17, 2015; final manuscript received July 21, 2016; published online October 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: M. Porfiri.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(1), 011008 (Oct 17, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1519; doi: 10.1115/1.4034321 History: Received October 17, 2015; Revised July 21, 2016

A nonlinearly broadband tuneable energy harvesting device has been designed, fabricated, and tested based on the nonlinear dynamical response of a parametrically excited clamped–clamped beam carrying a central point mass as the core element; a tuning mechanism in the form of an initial axial displacement applied to one of the clamped–clamped beam ends has been introduced to the system which enables tuning of device's natural frequency. Magnets have been used as the central point mass which generates a backward electromotive force (EMF) as they move through a coil when parametrically excited. The tuning parameter was set to a value for which the primary and principal nonlinear resonant regions become close to each other; hence, the frequency bandwidth is broadened substantially, leading to a larger amount of electrical power harvested; moreover, the nonlinear behavior, due to flexural/restoring-electromagnetic couplings, increased the operating bandwidth considerably. The system was parametrically excited using an electrodynamic shaker, and the corresponding motions of the magnets were measured. By increasing the tuning parameter, the fundamental natural frequency reduces and the system nonlinearity significantly increases; it has been discovered that when the initial axial displacement is approximately the thickness of the beam the fundamental and principal parametric resonance branches combine thus, the frequency bandwidth (and hence the range of the energy harvested) is significantly increased due to the parametric excitation, nonlinear behavior, and initial axial displacement.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Fundamental parametric frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0.5 mm initial axial displacement (S0) (from the untuned state): (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

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Fig. 5

(a) Time trace, (b) phase-plane diagram, (c) FFT, (d) PDF, and (e) autocorrelation at Ω  = 21.17 Hz and 3 ms−2 base excitation, for the system of Fig. 3, illustrating a nonsymmetric period-1 motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Time trace, (b) phase-plane diagram, (c) fast Fourier transform (FFT), (d) probability density function (PDF), and (e) autocorrelation at Ω  = 11.73 Hz and 3 ms−2 base excitation, for the system of Fig. 3, illustrating a nonsymmetric period-1 motion

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Fig. 3

Frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0.65 mm initial axial displacement (S0) (from the untuned state), subject to a 3 m/s2 base excitation: (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup: (a) flowchart of the experimental procedure, (b) fabricated energy harvester (untuned), and (c) top view of the core element with a 0.65 mm initial axial displacement (S0)

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Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the core element of the energy harvester fabricated (untuned)

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Fig. 7

Principal parametric frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0.5 mm initial axial displacement (S0) (from the untuned state): (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Time trace, (b) phase-plane diagram, (c) FFT, (d) PDF, and (e) autocorrelation at Ω  = 33.84 Hz and 12 ms−2 base excitation, for the system of Fig. 7, illustrating a period-1 motion

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Fig. 9

Fundamental parametric frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0.3 mm initial axial displacement (S0) (from the untuned state): (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

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Fig. 10

Principal parametric frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0.3 mm initial axial displacement (S0) (from the untuned state): (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

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Fig. 11

Fundamental parametric frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0 mm initial axial displacement (untuned): (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

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Fig. 12

Principal parametric frequency–response curves for the energy harvester with a 0 mm initial axial displacement (untuned): (a) load voltage and (b) nondimensional displacement

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Fig. 13

(a) Time trace, (b) phase-plane diagram, (c) FFT, (d) PDF, and (e) autocorrelation at Ω  = 47.24 Hz and 10 ms−2 base excitation, for the system of Fig. 12, illustrating a symmetric period-1 motion

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Fig. 14

comsol simulation of the core element of the energy harvester: (a) discretized mesh and (b) first mode shape of the fundamental parametric resonance (ω1)

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Fig. 15

comsol simulation of the response at the fundamental parametric resonance of the untuned energy harvester (ω1)

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