To increase the performance of closed-loop controlled systems in off-nominal conditions and in the presence of inevitable faults and uncertainties, a systematic approach based on robust convex optimization for adaptive augmenting control design is discussed in this paper. More specifically, this paper addresses the problem of adaptive augmenting controller (AAC) design for systems with time-varying polytopic uncertainty. First, a robust state-feedback controller is designed via robust convex optimization as a baseline controller. The closed-loop polytopic system with the baseline controller is considered as the desired time-varying reference model for the design of a direct state-feedback adaptive controller. Next using Lyapunov arguments, global stability of combined robust baseline and adaptive augmenting controllers is established. Furthermore, it is proved that tracking error converges to zero asymptotically. A case study for a generic nonminimum phase nonlinear pitch-axis missile autopilot is conducted. Simulation tests are performed to evaluate stability and performance of nonlinear time-varying closed-loop system in the presence of uncertainties in pitching moment and normal force coefficients, and unmodeled time delays. In addition, results of the simulations indicate satisfactory robustness in case of severe loss of control effectiveness event.