Research Papers

First Principle-Based Control Oriented Model of a Gasoline Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Ahmed Yar

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Capital University of Science and Technology,
Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
e-mail: ahmedyar@gmail.com

A. I. Bhatti

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Capital University of Science and Technology,
Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
e-mail: aib@cust.edu.pk

Qadeer Ahmed

Center for Automotive Research,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43212
e-mail: ahmed.358@osu.edu

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received January 13, 2016; final manuscript received November 1, 2016; published online March 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ryozo Nagamune.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(5), 051002 (Mar 01, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: DS-16-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4035174 History: Received January 13, 2016; Revised November 01, 2016

A first principle based-control oriented gasoline engine model is proposed that is based on the mathematical model of the actual piston and crankshaft mechanism. Unlike conventional mean value engine models (MVEMs), which involve approximating the torque production mechanism with a volumetric pump, the proposed model obviates this rather over-simplistic assumption. The alleviation of this assumption leads to the additional features in the model such as crankshaft speed fluctuations and tension in bodies forming the mechanism. The torque production dynamics are derived through Lagrangian mechanics. The derived equations are reduced to a suitable form that can be easily used in the control-oriented model. As a result, the abstraction level is greatly reduced between the engine system and the mathematical model. The proposed model is validated successfully against a commercially available 1.3 L gasoline engine. Being a transparent and more capable model, the proposed model can offer better insight into the engine dynamics, improved control design and diagnosis solutions, and that too, in a unified framework.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Guzzella, L. , and Onder, C. , 2004, Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems, 1st ed., Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg.
Rizvi, M. , Bhatti, A. , and Butt, Q. , 2011, “ Hybrid Model of the Gasoline Engine for Misfire Detection,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 58(8), pp. 3680–3692. [CrossRef]
Dohner, D. J. , 1980, “ A Mathematical Engine Model for Development of Dynamic Engine Control,” SAE Technical Paper No. 800054.
Dobner, D. J. , and Fruechte, R. D. , 1983, “ An Engine Model for Dynamic Engine Control Development,” American Control Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 22–24, pp. 73–78.
Hendricks, E. , and Sorenson, S. C. , 1990, “ Mean Value Modelling of Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 900616.
Hendricks, E. , and Vesterholm, T. , 1992, “ The Analysis of Mean Value SI Engine Model,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 920682.
Hendricks, E. , 2001, “ Isothermal vs. Adiabatic Mean Value SI Engine Models,” Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Workshop on Advances in Automotive Control Karlsruhe, Germany, Mar. 26–30, pp. 373–378.
Chevalier, A. , Muller, M. , and Hendricks, E. , 2000, “ On the Validity of Mean Value Engine Models During Transient Operation,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-01-1261.
Weeks, R. W. , and Moskwa, J. J. , 1995, “ Automotive Engine Modeling for Real-Time Control Using Matlab/Simulink,” SAE Technical Paper No. 950417.
Falcone, P. , De Gennaro, M. , Fiengo, G. , Glielmo, L. , Santini, S. , and Langthaler, P. , 2003, “ Torque Generation Model for Diesel Engine,” Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Vol. 2, pp. 1771–1776.
Shamekhi, A. , and Shamekhi, A. H. , 2015, “ A New Approach in Improvement of Mean Value Models for Spark Ignition Engines Using Neural Networks,” J. Expert Syst. Appl., 42(12), pp. 5192–5218. [CrossRef]
Nikzadfar, K. , and Shamekhi, A. H. , 2015, “ An Extended Mean Value Model (emvm) for Control-Oriented Modeling of Diesel Engines Transient Performance and Emissions,” Fuel, 154, pp. 275–292. [CrossRef]
Asl, H. A. , Saeedi, M. , Fraser, R. , Goossens, P. , and McPhee, J. , 2013, “ Mean Value Engine Model Including Spark Timing for Powertrain Control Application,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0247.
Rizzoni, G. , 1989, “ Estimate of Indicated Torque From Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations: A Model for the Dynamics of the IC Engine,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 38(3), pp. 168–179. [CrossRef]
Brown, T. S. , and Neil, W. S. , 1992, “ Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures From Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations,” SAE Technical Paper No. 920463.
Heywood, J. , 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (Automotive Technology Series), McGraw-Hill, New York.
Cengel, Y. A. , and Boles, M. A. , 2008, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Science, New York.
Fitzpatrick, R. , 2011, Newtonian Dynamics, Lulu, Raleigh, NC.
Lagarias, J. C. , Reeds, J. A. , Wright, M. H. , and Wright, P. E. , 1998, “ Convergence Properties of the Nelder–Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim., 9(1), pp. 112–147. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, Q. , and Bhatti, A. I. , 2011, “ Estimating SI Engine Efficiencies and Parameters in Second-Order Sliding Modes,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 58(10), pp. 4837–4846. [CrossRef]
Pulkrabek, W. W. , 2003, Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Zweiri, Y. H. , Whidborne, J. F. , and Seneviratne, L. D. , 2001, “ Detailed Analytical Model of a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine in the Crank Angle Domain,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 215(11), pp. 1197–1216. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y. W. , Rizzoni, G. , and Wang, Y.-Y. , 1999, “ Design of an IC Engine Torque Estimator Using Unknown Input Observer,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 121(3), pp. 487–495. [CrossRef]
Wilson, C. E. , and Sadler, J. P. , 2003, Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery, 3rd ed., Pearson, London.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Engine system: interconnected air, fuel, and torque production subsystem

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Configuration of slider crank mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Two possible realizations of proposed torque production subsystem: (a) all inputs are taken as torques acting on the Crankshaft and (b) torques and forces are taken separately

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Structure of the optimization problem for parameters estimation of intake manifold subsystem

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Structure of the optimization problem for parameters estimation of torque production subsystem

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Volumetric efficiency ηv and data points. Root-mean-square evaluated by matlab curve fitting toolbox is 0.0081.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Throttle position (acquired from engine). Same is fed to the model for validation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Intake manifold pressure (Pman) (continuous line is model output, dashed line is actual response). (a) Proposed FPEM and (b) conventional MVEM.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Crankshaft angular velocity (continuous line is model output, dashed line is actual response). (a) proposed FPEM and (b) conventional MVEM.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Engine crankshaft angular speed response when throttle is changed in stair-case pattern (validation error of ≤3.5%): (a) throttle position and (b) crankshaft angular speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Engine crankshaft angular speed response when throttle is changed in large step sizes (validation error of ≤4.7%): (a) throttle position and (b) crankshaft angular speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effects of profile of crankshaft angular speed by variation in parameters of slider crank mechanism: (a) exact parameters of mechanism and (b) perturbed parameters of mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Various parameters solved along-with engine speed: (a) translational tension in connecting rod, (b) force acting on piston, and (c) piston position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Piston reciprocating motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of crankshaft angular speed in conventional MVEMs and proposed FPEM. Both models are run with same inputs and region of steady-state is magnified. (a) Oscillations in engine angular speed (magnified view of a portion of Fig. 9(a)). (b) Crankshaft angular speed profile constructed by conventional MVEM (magnified view of a portion of Fig. 9(b)).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Experimental arrangement



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In