Research Papers

Temperature Distribution in Moving Webs Heated by Radiation Panels: Model Development and Experimental Validation

[+] Author and Article Information
Edison O. Cobos Torres

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: orlando.cobos@tamu.edu

Prabhakar R. Pagilla

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: ppagilla@tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received January 22, 2016; final manuscript received November 16, 2016; published online March 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Beshah Ayalew.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(5), 051003 (Mar 10, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: DS-16-1052; doi: 10.1115/1.4035297 History: Received January 22, 2016; Revised November 16, 2016

In this paper, we develop a model to determine the temperature distribution in moving webs due to heating by radiation panels and convection from the web surface. Heating of the transported material is common in many web processes, such as printing, coating, and lamination. Radiation panels provide a simple and noncontact means for web heating. To develop a governing equation for moving web temperature, we treat the web as a moving medium under a heating source which is the radiation panel. We consider both radiation and convection and changes in the convection coefficient in the air film between the web surface and the heating source. Using the temperature governing equation, one can predict the web temperature in the moving web that is transported with different speeds under the heating panels. The model development and analysis are dimensionless; therefore, it can be applied to a variety of web materials and heating panel locations. The model development is motivated by the roll-to-roll (R2R) atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) application, and an experimental platform designed to conduct ALD/MLD is employed to validate the model for different scenarios. Comparative results from experiments and model simulations for varying speeds and different operating conditions are provided to validate the model.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lee, C. , Kang, H. , and Shin, K. , 2010, “ A Study on Tension Behavior Considering Thermal Effects in Roll-to-Roll E-Printing,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 24(5), pp. 1097–1103. [CrossRef]
Lee, G. T. , Shin, J. M. , Kim, H. M. , and Kim, J. S. , 2010, “ A Web Tension Control Strategy for Multi-Span Web Transport Systems in Annealing Furnace,” ISIJ Int., 50(6), pp. 854–863. [CrossRef]
Ali, K. , Choi, K.-H. , and Muhammad, N. M. , 2014, “ Roll-to-Roll Atmospheric Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Thin Films on PET Substrates,” Chem. Vapor Deposition, 20(10–12), pp. 380–387. [CrossRef]
Lu, Y. , and Pagilla, P. , 2012, “ Modeling of Temperature Distribution in a Moving Web Transported Over a Heat Transfer Roller,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2012-MOVIC2012-8737.
Pagilla, P. R. , Siraskar, N. B. , and Dwivedula, R. V. , 2007, “ Decentralized Control of Web Processing Lines,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(1), pp. 106–117. [CrossRef]
Seshadri, A. , Pagilla, P. R. , and Lynch, J. E. , 2013, “ Modeling Print Registration in Roll-to-Roll Printing Presses,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 135(3), p. 031016. [CrossRef]
Gassmann, V. , Knittel, D. , Pagilla, P. , and Bueno, M.-A. , 2012, “ Fixed-Order H Tension Control in the Unwinding Section of a Web Handling System Using a Pendulum Dancer,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 20(1), pp. 173–180.
Mokhtari, F. , Sicard, P. , and Hazzab, A. , 2011, “ Decentralized Nonlinear Control Strategies for Disturbance Rejection in Winding Systems,” IEEE International Electric Machines Drives Conference, May 15–18, pp. 230–235.
Pagilla, P. R. , Dwivedula, R. V. , Zhu, Y. , and Perera, L. P. , 2003, “ Periodic Tension Disturbance Attenuation in Web Process Lines Using Active Dancers,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 125(3), pp. 361–371. [CrossRef]
Dwivedula, R. V. , 2005, “ Modeling the Effects of Belt Compliance, Backlash, and Slip on Web Tension and New Methods for Decentralized Control of Web Processing Lines,” Ph.D. dissertation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.
Comini, G. , Savino, S. , Magriotis, N. , and Muratori, S. , 2007, “ Thermal Modeling of Vacuum Web Coating,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(2–3), pp. 611–618. [CrossRef]
Kim, G. Y. , Kim, H. M. , Shin, J. M. , and Kim, J. S. , 2008, “ Modeling and Feed-Forward Velocity Compensation of Multi-Span Web Transport Systems With Thermal and Gravity Effects,” ISIJ Int., 48(6), pp. 799–808. [CrossRef]
Leskelä, M. , and Ritala, M. , 2003, “ Atomic Layer Deposition Chemistry: Recent Developments and Future Challenges,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 42(45), pp. 5548–5554. [CrossRef]
George, S. M. , 2010, “ Atomic Layer Deposition: An Overview,” Chem. Rev., 110(1), pp. 111–131. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Poodt, P. , Cameron, D. C. , Dickey, E. , George, S. M. , Kuznetsov, V. , Parsons, G. N. , Roozeboom, F. , Sundaram, G. , and Vermeer, A. , 2012, “ Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition: A Route Towards Further Industrialization of Atomic Layer Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 30(1), p. 010802.
Lahtinen, K. , Maydannik, P. , Johansson, P. , Kääriäinen, T. , Cameron, D. C. , and Kuusipalo, J. , 2011, “ Utilisation of Continuous Atomic Layer Deposition Process for Barrier Enhancement of Extrusion-Coated Paper,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 205(15), pp. 3916–3922. [CrossRef]
Maydannik, P. S. , Plyushch, A. , Sillanpää, M. , and Cameron, D. C. , 2015, “ Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition: Performance of Low Temperature H2O and O3 Oxidant Chemistry for Flexible Electronics Encapsulation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 33(3), p. 031603.
Lu, Y. , and Pagilla, P. , 2014, “ Modeling of Temperature Distribution in Moving Webs in Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 6(4), p. 041012. [CrossRef]
Janna, W. , 2009, Engineering Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., CRC Press, New York.
Ling, F. F. , Lai, W. , and Lucca, D. A. , 1973, Fundamentals of Surface Mechanics: With Applications, 2nd ed., Springer, New York.
Wazwaz, A.-M. , 2011, Linear and Nonlinear Integral Equations, Higher Education Press, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Picture of modular R2R ALD/MLD machine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Continuous strip heat source on the surface of a moving semi-infinite medium [20]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Position of variable ξ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sketch of the modular R2R spatial ALD/MLD

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Control systems for the ALD/MLD machine: (a) tension and speed control for rewind motor, (b) speed control for rewind and gas reactor, and (c) temperature control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Heating panel temperature measured at three different locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Heating panel surface temperature to input voltages levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Input voltage versus steady-state heating panel surface temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Web temperature within the heating panel at different web speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental and model simulation data for web speeds of 0.0508 (10 ft/min), 0.254 (50 ft/min), and 0.508 m/s (100 ft/min)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Location of the temperature sensors in the web path

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Web temperature at different web speeds: (a) sensor 1 at exit of the heating panels, (b) sensor 2, and (c) sensor 3




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In