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Research Papers

Parameterization of Battery Electrothermal Models Coupled With Finite Element Flow Models for Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Nassim A. Samad

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: nassimab@umich.edu

Boyun Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: bywang@umich.edu

Jason B. Siegel

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: siegeljb@umich.edu

Anna G. Stefanopoulou

Professor
Fellow ASME
William Clay Ford Professor of Manufacturing
Mechanical Engineering,
Automotive Research Center,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: annastef@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received October 6, 2015; final manuscript received December 19, 2016; published online May 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Beshah Ayalew.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(7), 071003 (May 09, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1490; doi: 10.1115/1.4035742 History: Received October 06, 2015; Revised December 19, 2016

Developing and parameterizing models that accurately predict the battery voltage and temperature in a vehicle battery pack are challenging due to the complex geometries of the airflow that influence the convective heat transfer. This paper addresses the difficulty in parameterizing low-order models which rely on coupling with finite element simulations. First, we propose a methodology to couple the parameterization of an equivalent circuit model (ECM) for both the electrical and thermal battery behavior with a finite element model (FEM) for the parameterization of the convective cooling of the airflow. In air-cooled battery packs with complex geometries and cooling channels, an FEM can provide the physics basis for the parameterization of the ECM that might have different convective coefficients between the cells depending on the airflow patterns. The second major contribution of this work includes validation of the ECM against the data collected from a three-cell fixture that emulates a segment of the pack with relevant cooling conditions for a hybrid vehicle. The validation is performed using an array of thin film temperature sensors covering the surface of the cell. Experiments with pulsing currents and drive cycles are used for validation over a wide range of operating conditions (ambient temperature, state of charge, current amplitude, and pulse width).

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Double RC model representing an electrical node

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Fig. 2

Five-layered mesh for the thermal model

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Fig. 1

Three-cell fixture used in experiments showing placement of RTD sensors on spacer

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Fig. 4

Current profile used for electrical parameterization

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Fig. 5

Voltage fit and error for single, double, and triple RC models at: (a) 30% SOC, (b) 50% SOC, (c) 70% SOC at 25 °C, and using 5A current pulse

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Fig. 6

Electrical parameters Rs, R1, C1, R2, and C2 as a function of SOC and temperature

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Fig. 7

Time constants for both RC pairs at different temperatures

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Fig. 8

Entropy slope dU/dT as a function of SOC as measured during discharge at 25 °C

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Fig. 14

Temperature rise at steady-state at the 36 sensor locations using COMSOL, ETM, and experimental data using a 20 Å, 39 Å, and 50 Å excitation profiles

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Fig. 10

Current profile used for thermal parameterization at 25 °C and the corresponding measured surface temperatures

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Fig. 11

Three-dimensional FEM of the three-cell fixture

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Fig. 12

Location of the sensors on the surface of the cell and the cell surface temperature distribution for 39 Å cycling case

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Fig. 13

Numerical model parameterization process using the optimization logic defined in Eq. (11)

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Fig. 15

Pulse validation experiment at 25 °C, 75% SOC, and 25 Å current amplitude

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Fig. 16

Simulated and experimental electrothermal behavior during a hybrid power split for a US06 drive cycle at 25 °C

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Fig. 17

Simulated and experimental electrothermal behavior during a hybrid power split for an urban assault drive cycle 25 °C

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