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Research Papers

SI-HCCI Mode Transitions Without Open-Loop Sequence Scheduling: Control Architecture and Experimental Validation

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick Gorzelic

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: pgoz@umich.edu

Anna Stefanopoulou

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: annastef@umich.edu

Jeff Sterniak

Robert Bosch LLC,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
e-mail: jeff.sterniak@us.bosch.com

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received September 29, 2015; final manuscript received February 16, 2017; published online June 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(8), 081014 (Jun 01, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1470; doi: 10.1115/1.4036232 History: Received September 29, 2015; Revised February 16, 2017

This paper describes a model-based feedback control method to transition from spark ignition (SI) to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in gasoline engines. The purpose of the control structure is to improve robustness and reduce calibration complexity by incorporating feedback of the engine variables into nonlinear model-based calculations that inherently generalize across operating points. This type of structure is sought as an alternative to prior SI-HCCI transition approaches that involve open-loop calibration of input command sequences that must be scheduled by operating condition. The control architecture is designed for cam switching type SI-HCCI mode transition strategies with practical two-stage cam profile hardware, which previously have only been investigated in a purely open-loop framework. Experimental results on a prototype engine show that the control architecture is able to carry out SI-HCCI transitions across the HCCI load range at 2000 rpm engine speed while requiring variation of only one major set point and three minor set points with operating condition. These results suggest a noteworthy improvement in controller generality and ease of calibration relative to previous SI-HCCI transition approaches.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustrative two-stage cam profiles to enable dual SI/HCCI operation

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Fig. 2

In-cylinder pressure data from a cam switching SI-HCCI mode transition illustrating the changes in combustion features over the course of the transition

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Fig. 3

Representative depiction of high-level actuator trajectories for SI-HCCI transition strategy. θsoi shown with reference to bTDC; all other timings shown with reference to aTDC.

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Fig. 4

Block diagram of controller for SI phase of the transition. Variable names are as defined in Table 1. P blocks indicate calculations using the plant model, and C blocks indicate output feedback controllers.

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Fig. 5

Block diagram of controller for HCCI phase of the transition. Variable names are as defined in Table 3 with xc representing combustion states. P blocks indicate calculations using the plant model, and C blocks indicate output feedback controllers.

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Fig. 6

Diagram of IMC structure. Q(z) represents a linear low-pass filter, and P and P̃ represent the true and controller model of the plant.

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Fig. 7 Top

Simulation response of θsoi−θ50 IMC loop to imposed additive model error for several tunings of the IMC filter Q(z). Middle: Repeated IMC simulation with doubled model error injection. Bottom: True and estimated Tbd state values in SI-HCCI mode transition simulation with 100 K initial estimator error.

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Fig. 8

Diagram of HCCI combustion state estimator

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Fig. 9

Controlled SI-HCCI transition at midload HCCI at 2000 rpm. Inputs shown in left column and outputs shown in right column. The first and second cylinders to enter HCCI are referred to as H1 and H2, respectively.

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Fig. 10

Controlled SI-HCCI transition experimental results across the HCCI load regime at 2000 rpm. Left: Low load of 1.8 bar NMEP Right: High load of 3.1 bar NMEP. The first and second cylinders to enter HCCI are referred to as H1 and H2, respectively.

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