Research Papers

SI-HCCI Mode Transitions Without Open-Loop Sequence Scheduling: Control Architecture and Experimental Validation

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick Gorzelic

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: pgoz@umich.edu

Anna Stefanopoulou

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: annastef@umich.edu

Jeff Sterniak

Robert Bosch LLC,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
e-mail: jeff.sterniak@us.bosch.com

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received September 29, 2015; final manuscript received February 16, 2017; published online June 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(8), 081014 (Jun 01, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1470; doi: 10.1115/1.4036232 History: Received September 29, 2015; Revised February 16, 2017

This paper describes a model-based feedback control method to transition from spark ignition (SI) to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in gasoline engines. The purpose of the control structure is to improve robustness and reduce calibration complexity by incorporating feedback of the engine variables into nonlinear model-based calculations that inherently generalize across operating points. This type of structure is sought as an alternative to prior SI-HCCI transition approaches that involve open-loop calibration of input command sequences that must be scheduled by operating condition. The control architecture is designed for cam switching type SI-HCCI mode transition strategies with practical two-stage cam profile hardware, which previously have only been investigated in a purely open-loop framework. Experimental results on a prototype engine show that the control architecture is able to carry out SI-HCCI transitions across the HCCI load range at 2000 rpm engine speed while requiring variation of only one major set point and three minor set points with operating condition. These results suggest a noteworthy improvement in controller generality and ease of calibration relative to previous SI-HCCI transition approaches.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhao, F. , Asmus, T. , Assanis, D. , Dec, J. , Eng, J. , and Najt, P. , 2003, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research and Development Issues, SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
Koopmans, L. , Ström, H. , Lundgren, S. , Backlund, O. , and Denbratt, I. , 2003, “ Demonstrating a SI-HCCI-SI Mode Change on a Volvo 5-Cylinder Electronic Valve Control Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2003-01-0753.
Santoso, H. , Matthews, J. , and Cheng, W. , 2005, “ Managing SI/HCCI Dual-Mode Engine Operation,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0162.
Zhang, Y. , Xie, H. , Zhou, N. , Chen, T. , and Zhao, H. , 2007, “ Study of SI-HCCI-SI Transition on a Port Fuel Injection Engine Equipped With 4VVAS,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0199.
Milovanovic, N. , Blundell, D. , Gedge, S. , and Turner, J. , 2005, “ SI-HCCI-SI Mode Transition at Different Engine Operating Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0156.
Tian, G. , Wang, Z. , Ge, Q. , Wang, J. , and Shuai, S. , 2007, “ Control of a Spark Ignition Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Mode Transition on a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 221(7), pp. 867–875.
Cairns, A. , and Blaxill, H. , 2007, “ The Effects of Two-Stage Cam Profile Switching and External EGR on SI-CAI Combustion Transitions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0187.
Kalian, N. , Zhao, H. , and Qiao, J. , 2008, “ Investigation of Transition Between Spark Ignition and Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion in a v6 Direct-Injection Engine With Cam Profile Switching,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 222(10), pp. 1911–1926. [CrossRef]
Wu, H. , Collings, N. , Regitz, S. , Etheridge, J. , and Kraft, M. , 2010, “ Experimental Investigation of a Control Method for SI-HCCI-SI Transition in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-1245.
Nier, T. , Kulzer, A. , and Karrelmeyer, R. , 2012, “ Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-1105.
Kakuya, H. , Yamaoka, S. , Kumano, K. , and Sato, S. , 2008, “ Investigation of a SI-HCCI Combustion Switching Control Method in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-0792.
Widd, A. , Johansson, R. , Borgqvist, P. , Tunest a˙l, P., and Johansson, B. , 2011, “ Investigating Mode Switch From SI to HCCI Using Early Intake Valve Closing and Negative Valve Overlap,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-1775.
Yang, X. , and Zhu, G. , 2013, “ SI and HCCI Combustion Mode Transition Control of an HCCI Capable SI Engine,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 21(5), pp. 1558–1569. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. , and Zhu, G. , 2014, “ Model-Based Mode Transition Control Between SI and HCCI Combustion,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2014-6148.
Ravi, N. , Jagsch, M. , Oudart, J. , Chaturvedi, N. , Cook, D. , and Kojic, A. , 2013, “ Closed-Loop Control of SI-HCCI Mode Switch Using Fuel Injection Timing,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2013-3785.
Gorzelic, P. , 2015, “ Modeling and Model-Based Control of Multi-Mode Combustion Engines for Closed-Loop SI/HCCI Mode Transitions with Cam Switching Strategies,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Song, H. H. , and Edwards, C. F. , 2009, “ Understanding Chemical Effects in Low-Load-Limit Extension of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines Via Recompression Reaction,” Int. J. Eng. Res., 10(4), pp. 231–250. [CrossRef]
Nüesch, S. , Stefanopoulou, A. , Jiang, L. , and Sterniak, J. , 2014, “ Fuel Economy of a Multimode Combustion Engine With Three-Way Catalytic Converter,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 137(5), p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Gorzelic, P. , Shingne, P. , Martz, J. , Stefanopouou, A. , Sterniak, J. , and Jiang, L. , 2016, “ A Low-Order Adaptive Engine Model for SI-HCCI Mode Transition Control Applications With Cam Switching Strategies,” Int. J. Eng. Res., 17(4), pp. 451–468. [CrossRef]
Eriksson, L. , 2007, “ Modeling and Control of Turbocharged SI and DI Engines,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol.-Rev. IFP, 62(4), pp. 523–538.
Gorzelic, P. , Hellström, E. , Stefanopoulou, A. , and Jiang, L. , 2012, “ Model-Based Feedback Control for an Automated Transfer Out of SI Operating During SI to HCCI Transitions in Gasoline Engines,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2012-MOVIC2012-8779.
Gorzelic, P. , Sterniak, J. , and Stefanopoulou, A. , 2017, “ SI-HCCI Mode Transitions Without Open-Loop Sequence Scheduling: Online Parameter Adaptation,” ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, (accepted).
Schwarzmann, D. , 2007, “ Nonlinear Internal Model Control with Automotive Applications,” Ph.D. thesis, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
Nüesch, S. , Gorzelic, P. , Jiang, L. , Sterniak, J. , and Stefanopoulou, A. , 2016, “ Accounting for Combustion Mode Switch Dynamics and Fuel Penalties in Drive Cycle Fuel Economy,” Int. J. Eng. Res., 17(4), pp. 436–450.
Heywood, J. , 1992, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Eriksson, L. , and Andersson, I. , 2002, “ An Analytic Model for Cylinder Pressure in a Four Stroke SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-01-0371.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative depiction of high-level actuator trajectories for SI-HCCI transition strategy. θsoi shown with reference to bTDC; all other timings shown with reference to aTDC.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

In-cylinder pressure data from a cam switching SI-HCCI mode transition illustrating the changes in combustion features over the course of the transition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustrative two-stage cam profiles to enable dual SI/HCCI operation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Block diagram of controller for SI phase of the transition. Variable names are as defined in Table 1. P blocks indicate calculations using the plant model, and C blocks indicate output feedback controllers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Block diagram of controller for HCCI phase of the transition. Variable names are as defined in Table 3 with xc representing combustion states. P blocks indicate calculations using the plant model, and C blocks indicate output feedback controllers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Diagram of HCCI combustion state estimator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Diagram of IMC structure. Q(z) represents a linear low-pass filter, and P and P̃ represent the true and controller model of the plant.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7 Top

Simulation response of θsoi−θ50 IMC loop to imposed additive model error for several tunings of the IMC filter Q(z). Middle: Repeated IMC simulation with doubled model error injection. Bottom: True and estimated Tbd state values in SI-HCCI mode transition simulation with 100 K initial estimator error.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Controlled SI-HCCI transition experimental results across the HCCI load regime at 2000 rpm. Left: Low load of 1.8 bar NMEP Right: High load of 3.1 bar NMEP. The first and second cylinders to enter HCCI are referred to as H1 and H2, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Controlled SI-HCCI transition at midload HCCI at 2000 rpm. Inputs shown in left column and outputs shown in right column. The first and second cylinders to enter HCCI are referred to as H1 and H2, respectively.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In