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Technical Brief

Characterizing the Spatially Dependent Sensitivity of Resonant Mass Sensors Using Inkjet Deposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Nikhil Bajaj, George T.-C. Chiu

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Ray W. Herrick Laboratories,
Birck Nanotechnology Center,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Jeffrey F. Rhoads

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Ray W. Herrick Laboratories,
Birck Nanotechnology Center,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: jfrhoads@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received April 27, 2016; final manuscript received May 5, 2017; published online July 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Srinivasa M. Salapaka.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 139(11), 114505 (Jul 19, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: DS-16-1214; doi: 10.1115/1.4036873 History: Received April 27, 2016; Revised May 05, 2017

Micro- and millimeter-scale resonant mass sensors have received widespread attention due to their robust and sensitive performance in a wide range of detection applications. A key performance metric for such systems is the sensitivity of the resonant frequency of a device to changes in mass, which needs to be calibrated. This calibration is complicated by the fact that the position of the added mass on a sensor can have an effect on the measured sensitivity—therefore, a spatial sensitivity mapping is needed. To date, most approaches for experimental sensitivity characterization are based upon the controlled addition of small masses, e.g., the direct attachment of microbeads via atomic force microscopy or the selective microelectrodeposition of material, both of which are time consuming and require specialized equipment. This work proposes a method of experimental spatial sensitivity measurement that uses an inkjet system and standard sensor readout methodology to map the spatially dependent sensitivity of a resonant mass sensor—a significantly easier experimental approach. The methodology is described and demonstrated on a quartz resonator. In the specific case of a Kyocera CX3225 thickness-shear mode resonator, the location of the region of maximum mass sensitivity is experimentally identified.

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Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Resonance , Sensors , Inks
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the deposition system, including hot air source, sensing system, inkjet system, and X–Y stage positioning system

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Fig. 2

A mass sensor (with measurement circuitry) undergoing the characterization procedure

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Fig. 3

Frequency response of a decapped 16 MHz CX3225 device prior to any ink deposition, from which f0 can be identified

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Fig. 4

A Kyocera CX3225 device with a single drop of black inkjet ink deposited

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Fig. 5

A Kyocera CX3225 device with 51 drops of black inkjet ink deposited

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Fig. 6

Process for a single drop deposition, with response phases identified. The shift Δf for this deposition is computed from the beginning of the single drop deposition.

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Fig. 7

A 12 drop portion of a deposition experiment. The shift Δf is the total shift from the beginning of the deposition experiment. The value of Δf between individual drops varies, as the position of the inkjet nozzle relative to the device changes.

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Fig. 8

The iterated Sauerbrey model evaluated for a 16 MHz CX3225 device (Kyocera) for 6000 pg drop mass, up to 200 drops. The model looks fairly linear in this range. The normalized differential sensitivity is defined as (1/S0)(Δfi/Δm).

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Fig. 9

The iterated Sauerbrey model evaluated for a 16 MHz CX3225 device (Kyocera) for 6000 pg drop mass, up to 200,000 drops. The model is clearly nonlinear. However, other assumptions of the Sauerbrey equation break down before the nonlinearity becomes important. The normalized differential sensitivity is defined as (1/S0)(Δfi/Δm).

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Fig. 10

Drop position distribution for the repeatability test. The error bars represent three standard deviations in the placement error. The drop positions were estimated from the approximate centroid of the distribution of the wet area from subsequent drop deposition images.

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Fig. 11

Mean frequency decrease due to a single drop (averaged over ten drops) at each of three locations (labeled 1, 2, and 3) on the device shown in Fig. 10. Error bars represent one standard deviation in the frequency shift per drop.

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Fig. 12

Results of a 51-drop experiment compiled into a scatter-bar plot showing the resonant frequency decrease due to drops in locations across the device

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