Research Papers

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fault Tolerant Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Richard T. Meyer

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
e-mail: richard.meyer@wmich.edu

Scott C. Johnson

School of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: johns924@purdue.edu

Raymond A. DeCarlo

School of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: decarlo@ecn.purdue.edu

Steve Pekarek

School of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: spekarek@purdue.edu

Scott D. Sudhoff

School of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: sudhoff@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received September 26, 2016; final manuscript received June 13, 2017; published online September 8, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Azim Eskandarian.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(2), 021002 (Sep 08, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: DS-16-1461; doi: 10.1115/1.4037270 History: Received September 26, 2016; Revised June 13, 2017

This paper investigates the supervisory-level, fault tolerant control of a 2004 Prius powertrain. The fault considered is an interturn short circuit (ITSC) fault in the traction drive (a surface mount permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) for which its rotor is part of the vehicle's driveline). ITSC faults arise from electrical insulation failures in the stator windings where part of a phase winding remains functional while the remaining decoupled windings form a self-contained loop. Because the permanent magnets on the rotor (driveline) shaft are able to induce very large eddy currents in this self-contained loop if its rotational velocity is left unchecked, the maximum allowable driveline speed, and consequently, vehicle speed, must be reduced to avoid exceeding the drive's operational thermal limits. A method for detecting these ITSC faults and the induced eddy current in an SPMSM using a moving horizon observer (MHO) is reviewed. These parameters then determine which previously computed, fault-level-dependent SPMSM input–output power efficiency map and maximum safe operating speed is utilized by the supervisory-level controller. The fault tolerant control is demonstrated by simulating a Prius over a 40 s drive velocity profile with fault levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 5% detected at the midpoint of the profile. For comparison, the Prius is also simulated without a traction motor fault. Results show that the control reduces vehicle velocity upon detection of a fault to an appropriate safe value.

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Fig. 1

The Toyota Prius hybrid powertrain architecture with power flows: (yellow) fuel power consumed, (green) electrical power produced, (red) electrical power consumed, (blue) mechanical power produced, and (orange) mechanical power consumed

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Fig. 2

The power envelope for SPMSM2 in propelling mode with degree of fault σ = 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and parameters in Table 7

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Fig. 5

Simulated Prius SPMSM1 (generator) and SPMSM2 (traction) mechanical powers with a 5% ITSC fault: (blue solid line) power and (gray dashed line) superimposed commanded velocity

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Fig. 4

Simulated Prius velocity tracking with ITSC faults of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 5%: (blue solid line) 0.5% fault, (red solid line) 1% fault, (green solid line) 2% fault, (cyan solid line) 5% fault, and (red dot) commanded velocity

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Fig. 6

Simulated Prius engine power for no fault and 5% fault level: (blue solid line) power and (gray dashed line) superimposed drive profile

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Fig. 7

Projected modes for the Prius simulation: (blue solid line) mode and (gray dashed line) superimposed commanded velocity

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Fig. 8

Prius ICE power output versus speed with fuel efficiency regions

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Fig. 3

Simulated Prius velocity tracking without fault: (solid line) simulated velocity and (dot) commanded velocity

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Fig. 9

Mechanical power split device sun-planet-ring gear system




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